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Publications:  Prof Ama Johal

Nakhleh K, Joury E, Dean R, Marcenes W, Johal A(2019). Can socioeconomic and psychosocial factors predict the duration of orthodontic treatment?. Eur J Orthod
10.1093/ejo/cjz074
Al Moghrabi D, Pandis N, MCLAUGHLIN K, Johal A, Donos N, Fleming PS (2019). Dataset - Evaluation of the effectiveness of a tailored mobile application in increasing the duration of wear of thermoplastic retainers: a randomised controlled trial.
Fleming P, Al-Moghrabi D, Colonio-Salazar F, Johal A(2019). Factors influencing adherence to vacuum-formed retainer wear: A qualitative study. Journal of Orthodontics
10.1177/1465312519851196.
https://qmro.qmul.ac.uk/xmlui/handle/123456789/58417
Al-eesa NA, KARPUKHINA N, HILL RG, JOHAL A, WONG FSL(2019). Bioactive glass composite for orthodontic adhesives – formation and characterisation of apatites using MAS-NMR and SEM. Dental Materials
10.1016/j.dental.2019.02.010
https://qmro.qmul.ac.uk/xmlui/handle/123456789/56051
FLEMING P, DONOS N, JOHAL A, Al-Moghrabi D, O'Rourke N, Pandis N, Gonzales-Marin C(2018). Effects of fixed vs removable orthodontic retainers on stability and periodontal health: 4-year follow-up of a randomized controlled trial. American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics vol. 154, (2) 167-174.e1.
10.1016/j.ajodo.2018.01.007
https://qmro.qmul.ac.uk/xmlui/handle/123456789/43027
JOHAL A, Bharmal BV(2018). Development and assessment of reliable patient-based hypodontia website. Patient Preference and Adherence vol. 2018, (12) 1065-1070.
10.2147/PPA.S153438
https://qmro.qmul.ac.uk/xmlui/handle/123456789/40045
Tsichlaki A, O'Brien K, Johal A, Fleming PS(2018). Orthodontic trial outcomes: Plentiful, inconsistent, and in need of uniformity? A scoping review. American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics vol. 153, (6) 797-807.
10.1016/j.ajodo.2017.10.022
https://qmro.qmul.ac.uk/xmlui/handle/123456789/44620
WONG FSL, ALEESA N, HILL R, JOHAL A(2018). Fluoride containing bioactive glass composite for orthodontic adhesives - apatite formation properties. Dental Materials
10.1016/j.dental.2018.04.009
https://qmro.qmul.ac.uk/xmlui/handle/123456789/39011
Lamb SE, Sheehan B, Atherton N, Nichols V, Collins H, Mistry D, Dosanjh S, Slowther AM et al.(2018). Dementia And Physical Activity (DAPA) trial of moderate to high intensity exercise training for people with dementia: Randomised controlled trial. BMJ (Online) vol. 361,
10.1136/bmj.k1675
Johal A, Desai A(2018). The role of dentists in management of snoring with oral appliances. Dental Update vol. 45, (5) 408-412.
10.12968/denu.2018.45.5.408
https://qmro.qmul.ac.uk/xmlui/handle/123456789/39446
JOHAL A, FLEMING P, QURESHI U, Ashari AB, Alamiri N, COX S, Pandis N(2018). Pain experience in adults undergoing treatment: A longitudinal evaluation. Angle Orthodontist
10.2319/082317-570.1
https://qmro.qmul.ac.uk/xmlui/handle/123456789/36333
JOHAL A, AGHA B(2018). Ready-made versus custom-made mandibular advancement appliances in obstructive sleep apnoea: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Sleep Research
10.1111/jsr.12660
https://qmro.qmul.ac.uk/xmlui/handle/123456789/32266
Collier S, Pandis N, Johal A, Qureshi U, Sharma PK, Fleming PS(2018). A prospective cohort study assessing the appearance of retrieved aesthetic orthodontic archwires. Orthodontics and Craniofacial Research vol. 21, (1) 27-32.
10.1111/ocr.12207
https://qmro.qmul.ac.uk/xmlui/handle/123456789/36783
WONG FSL, Hill R, Johal A, Al-eesa N(2017). Fluoride Containing Bioactive Glass Composite For Orthodontic Adhesives. Dental Materials
10.1016/j.dental.2017.08.185
https://qmro.qmul.ac.uk/xmlui/handle/123456789/26023
Al-Moghrabi D, Johal A, Fleming PS(2017). What are people tweeting about orthodontic retention? A cross-sectional content analysis. American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics vol. 152, (4) 516-522.
10.1016/j.ajodo.2017.04.021
https://qmro.qmul.ac.uk/xmlui/handle/123456789/36349
Tsichlaki A, O'Brien K, Johal A, Marshman ZZ, Benson PP, Salazar FBC, Fleming PS(2017). Erratum to Development of a core outcome set for orthodontic trials using a mixed-methods approach: protocol for a multicentre study. Trials vol. 18, (1) 407-407.
10.1186/s13063-017-2147-5
https://qmro.qmul.ac.uk/xmlui/handle/123456789/26503
Tsichlaki A, O'Brien K, Johal A, Marshman ZZ, Benson PP, Colonio Salazar FB, Fleming PS(2017). Development of a core outcome set for orthodontic trials using a mixed-methods approach: Protocol for a multicentre study. Trials vol. 18, (1)
10.1186/s13063-017-2098-x
https://qmro.qmul.ac.uk/xmlui/handle/123456789/26043
JOHAL A, Chagger A, Zou LF(2017). A three-dimensional soft tissue analysis of Class III malocclusion: a case-controlled cross-sectional study. Journal of Orthodontics
10.1080/14653125.2017.1331893
https://qmro.qmul.ac.uk/xmlui/handle/123456789/25648
Grewal B, Lee RT, Zou L, Johal A(2017). Royal London space analysis: Plaster versus digital model assessment. European Journal of Orthodontics vol. 39, (3) 320-325.
10.1093/ejo/cjw052
https://qmro.qmul.ac.uk/xmlui/handle/123456789/15010
JOHAL A, Qureshi U, Madahar A(2017). Orthodontic treatment modalities: a qualitative assessment of Internet information. Journal of Orthodontics
10.1080/14653125.2017.1313546
https://qmro.qmul.ac.uk/xmlui/handle/123456789/22347
JOHAL A, Fleming P, Tsichlaki A(2017). A scoping review of outcomes related to orthodontic treatment measured in children with Cleft Lip and Palate. Orthodontics and Craniofacial Research
10.1111/ocr.12152
https://qmro.qmul.ac.uk/xmlui/handle/123456789/21699
Agha B, Johal A(2017). Facial phenotype in obstructive sleep apnea–hypopnea syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Sleep Research vol. 26, (2) 122-131.
10.1111/jsr.12485
https://qmro.qmul.ac.uk/xmlui/handle/123456789/19603
Johal A, Haria P, McLindent M, Manek S, Joury E, Riha R(2017). Ready-Made Versus Custom-Made Mandibular Repositioning Devices in Sleep Apnea: A randomized clinical trial. Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine vol. 13, (2) 175-182.
10.5664/jcsm.6440
https://qmro.qmul.ac.uk/xmlui/handle/123456789/16171
Pacha MM, Fleming PS, Johal A(2016). A comparison of the efficacy of fixed versus removable functional appliances in children with Class II malocclusion: A systematic review. European journal of orthodontics vol. 38, (6) 621-630.
10.1093/ejo/cjv086
JOHAL A, Jahaur P, Al-quattan F, Kassim S, Mc Cloughlin K(2016). The efficacy of mandibular advancement appliances as a treatment alternative to continuous positive airway pressure in moderate OSAHS. Journal of Sleep Disorders and Management
10.23937/2572-4053.1510013
https://qmro.qmul.ac.uk/xmlui/handle/123456789/17884
JOHAL A, Nabhan AF, Fleming PS, Abbas NH, Sadek MM(2016). Self-ligating brackets versus conventional pre-adjusted edgewise brackets for treating malocclusion (Protocol). Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
10.1002/14651858.CD012407
https://qmro.qmul.ac.uk/xmlui/handle/123456789/16186
O'Rourke N, Albeedh H, Sharma P, Johal A(2016). Effectiveness of bonded and vacuum-formed retainers: A prospective randomized controlled clinical trial. American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics vol. 150, (3) 406-415.
10.1016/j.ajodo.2016.03.020
https://qmro.qmul.ac.uk/xmlui/handle/123456789/15011
Sharma G, Johal AS, Liversidge HM(2015). Predicting agenesis of the mandibular second premolar from adjacent teeth. PLoS ONE vol. 10, (12)
10.1371/journal.pone.0144180
https://qmro.qmul.ac.uk/xmlui/handle/123456789/13479
Johal A, Fleming PS, Manek S, Marinho VCC(2015). Mandibular advancement splint (MAS) therapy for obstructive sleep apnoea—an overview and quality assessment of systematic reviews. Sleep and Breathing vol. 19, (3) 1101-1108.
10.1007/s11325-015-1148-4
Fleming PS, Fedorowicz Z, Johal A, El-Angbawi A, Pandis N(2015). Surgical adjunctive procedures for accelerating orthodontic treatment. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews vol. 2015, (6)
10.1002/14651858.CD010572.pub2
Johal A, Alyaqoobi I, Patel R, Cox S(2015). The impact of orthodontic treatment on quality of life and self-esteem in adult patients. Eur J Orthod vol. 37, (3) 233-237.
10.1093/ejo/cju047
Sunnak R, Johal A, Fleming PS(2015). Is orthodontics prior to 11 years of age evidence-based? A systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Dentistry
10.1016/j.jdent.2015.02.003
Sunnak R, Johal A, Fleming PS(2015). Is orthodontics prior to 11 years of age evidence-based? A systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Dentistry vol. 43, (5) 477-486.
10.1016/j.jdent.2015.02.003
Chatzopoulou D, Johal A(2015). Management of gingival recession in the orthodontic patient. Seminars in Orthodontics vol. 21, (1) 15-26.
10.1053/j.sodo.2014.12.002
Cunningham SJ, Johal A(2015). Orthognathic correction of dento-facial discrepancies. British Dental Journal vol. 218, (3) 167-175.
10.1038/sj.bdj.2015.49
Benson PE, Da'As T, Johal A, Mandall NA, Williams AC, Baker SR, Marshman Z(2015). Relationships between dental appearance, self-esteem, socio-economic status, and oral health-related quality of life in UK schoolchildren: A 3-year cohort study. European Journal of Orthodontics vol. 37, (5) 481-490.
10.1093/ejo/cju076
Johal A, Sharma NR, McLaughlin K, Zou LF(2015). The reliability of thermoform retainers: A laboratory-based comparative study. European Journal of Orthodontics vol. 37, (5) 503-507.
10.1093/ejo/cju075
https://qmro.qmul.ac.uk/xmlui/handle/123456789/6677
Johal A, Joury E(2015). What factors predict the uptake of orthodontic treatment among adults?. American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics vol. 147, (6) 704-710.
10.1016/j.ajodo.2015.01.025
Johal A, Fleming PS, Al Jawad FA(2014). A prospective longitudinal controlled assessment of pain experience and oral health-related quality of life in adolescents undergoing fixed appliance treatment. Orthod Craniofac Res vol. 17, (3) 178-186.
10.1111/ocr.12044
Johal A, Fleming PS, Al Jawad FA(2014). A prospective longitudinal controlled assessment of pain experience and oral health-related quality of life in adolescents undergoing fixed appliance treatment. Orthodontics and Craniofacial Research vol. 17, (3) 178-186.
10.1111/ocr.12044
Fleming PS, Lee RT, McDonald T, Pandis N, Johal A(2014). The timing of significant arch dimensional changes with fixed orthodontic appliances: Data from a multicenter randomised controlled trial. Journal of Dentistry vol. 42, (1) 1-6.
10.1016/j.jdent.2013.11.010
Fleming PS, Lee RT, Mcdonald T, Pandis N, Johal A(2014). The timing of significant arch dimensional changes with fixed orthodontic appliances: data from a multicenter randomised controlled trial. J Dent vol. 42, (1) 1-6.
10.1016/j.jdent.2013.11.010
Johal A, Abed Al Jawad F, Marcenes W, Croft N(2013). Does orthodontic treatment harm children's diets?. J Dent vol. 41, (11) 949-954.
10.1016/j.jdent.2013.08.025
Fleming PS, Lee RT, Marinho V, Johal A(2013). Comparison of maxillary arch dimensional changes with passive and active self-ligation and conventional brackets in the permanent dentition: a multicenter, randomized controlled trial. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop vol. 144, (2) 185-193.
10.1016/j.ajodo.2013.03.012
Fleming PS, Johal A, Pandis N(2013). Reply. European Journal of Orthodontics vol. 35, (4) 548-549.
10.1093/ejo/cjt015
Fleming PS, Johal A, Pandis N(2013). The effectiveness of laceback ligatures during initial orthodontic alignment: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Eur J Orthod vol. 35, (4) 539-546.
10.1093/ejo/cjs033
Johal A, Katsaros C, Kuijpers-Jagtman AM, Angle Society of Europe membership(2013). State of the science on controversial topics: missing maxillary lateral incisors--a report of the Angle Society of Europe 2012 meeting. Prog Orthod vol. 14,
10.1186/2196-1042-14-20
https://qmro.qmul.ac.uk/xmlui/handle/123456789/16842
Johal A, Katsaros C, Kiliaridis S, Leitao P, Rosa M, Sculean A, Weiland F, Zachrisson B(2013). State of the science on controversial topics: orthodontic therapy and gingival recession (a report of the Angle Society of Europe 2013 meeting). Prog Orthod vol. 14,
10.1186/2196-1042-14-16
https://qmro.qmul.ac.uk/xmlui/handle/123456789/17889
Fleming PS, Pandis N, Johal A, El-Angbawi A, Fedorowicz Z(2013). Adjunctive surgical procedures for accelerating tooth movement in patients undergoing orthodontic treatment. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews vol. 2013, (6)
10.1002/14651858.CD010572
Fleming PS, Johal A, Pandis N, Elkhadem A, Orabi N(2013). Weak evidence suggests higher risk for bracket bonding failure with self-etch primer compared to conventional acid etch over 12 months. Evidence-Based Dentistry vol. 14, (2) 52-53.
10.1038/sj.ebd.6400936
Joury E, Marcenes W, Johal A(2013). The role of psychosocial factors in predicting orthodontic treatment outcome at the end of 1 year of active treatment. Eur J Orthod vol. 35, (2) 205-215.
10.1093/ejo/cjr111
Al Jawad FA, Cunningham SJ, Croft N, Johal A(2012). A qualitative study of the early effects of fixed orthodontic treatment on dietary intake and behaviour in adolescent patients. EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF ORTHODONTICS vol. 34, (4) 432-436.
10.1093/ejo/cjr032
Hayes ML, Johal A(2012). The influence of malocclusion on the diagnostic value of the orthopantomogram in the maxillary labial segment. Orthod Craniofac Res vol. 15, (3) 169-177.
10.1111/j.1601-6343.2012.01549.x
Fleming PS, Johal A, Pandis N(2012). Self-etch primers and conventional acid-etch technique for orthodontic bonding: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop vol. 142, (1) 83-94.
10.1016/j.ajodo.2012.02.023
Cunningham S, Bearn D, Benson P, Johal A, Millett D, O'Brien K, Luther F(2011). In search of the sample: Recent experiences of a trial team in Orthodontics. CONTEMP CLIN TRIALS vol. 32, (4) 530-534.
10.1016/j.cct.2011.04.005
Joury E, Johal A, Marcenes W(2011). The role of socio-economic position in predicting orthodontic treatment outcome at the end of 1 year of active treatment. Eur J Orthod vol. 33, (3) 263-269.
10.1093/ejo/cjq080
Johal A, Battagel J, Hector M(2011). Controlled, prospective trial of psychosocial function before and after mandibular advancement splint therapy. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop vol. 139, (5) 581-587.
10.1016/j.ajodo.2009.06.035
Johal A, Sheriteh Z, Battagel J, Marshall C(2011). The use of videofluoroscopy in the assessment of the pharyngeal airway in obstructive sleep apnoea. Eur J Orthod vol. 33, (2) 212-219.
10.1093/ejo/cjq058
Fleming PS, Marinho V, Johal A(2011). Orthodontic measurements on digital study models compared with plaster models: a systematic review. Orthod Craniofac Res vol. 14, (1) 1-16.
10.1111/j.1601-6343.2010.01503.x
Fleming PS, Johal A(2010). Self-Ligating Brackets in Orthodontics A Systematic Review. ANGLE ORTHOD vol. 80, (3) 575-584.
10.2319/081009-454.1
Church SKJ, Littlewood SJ, Blance A, Gowans AJ, Hodge TM, Spencer RJ, Johal A(2009). Summary of: Are general dental practitioners effective in the management of non-apnoeic snoring using mandibular advancement appliances?. British Dental Journal vol. 206, (8) 416-417.
10.1038/sj.bdj.2009.338
Church SKJ, Littlewood SJ, Blance A, Gowans AJ, Hodge TM, Spencer RJ, Johal A(2009). Are general dental practitioners effective in the management of non-apnoeic snoring using mandibular advancement appliances?. BRIT DENT J vol. 206, (8) Article E15,
10.1038/sj.bdj.2009.305
Fleming P, Johal A, DiBiase AT(2008). Managing malocclusion in the mixed dentition: six keys to success part 2. Dental update vol. 35, (10) 673-676.
10.12968/denu.2008.35.10.673
Johal A, Hector M, Battagel J, Morrell M (2008). The impact of mandibular advancement splint therapy on quality of life in OSA patients reselected for treatment. JOURNAL OF SLEEP RESEARCH. vol. 17, 151-152.
Patel B, Johal A, Battagel J (2008). The long term effects of mandibular advancement splints in the treatment of sleep disordered breathing. JOURNAL OF SLEEP RESEARCH. vol. 17, 168-168.
Johal A(2008). A review of the use of mandibular advancement appliances in sleep-disordered breathing. Dent Update vol. 35, (4) 230-235.
10.12968/denu.2008.35.4.230
Owens AM, Johal A(2008). Near-end of treatment panoramic radiograph in the assessment of mesiodistal root angulation. Angle Orthod vol. 78, (3) 475-481.
10.2319/040107-161.1
Fleming P, Johal A, DiBiase AT(2008). Managing malocclusion in the mixed dentition: six keys to success. Part 1. Dental update vol. 35, (9)
10.12968/denu.2008.35.9.607
Johal A, Patel SI, Battagel JM(2007). The relationship between craniofacial anatomy and obstructive sleep apnoea: a case-controlled study. J Sleep Res vol. 16, (3) 319-326.
10.1111/j.1365-2869.2007.00599.x
Johal A, Hector MP, Battagel JM, Kotecha BT(2007). Impact of sleep nasendoscopy on the outcome of mandibular advancement splint therapy in subjects with sleep-related breathing disorders. J Laryngol Otol vol. 121, (7) 668-675.
10.1017/S0022215106003203
Johal A, Cheung MYH, Marcene W(2007). The impact of two different malocclusion traits on quality of life. Br Dent J vol. 202, (2)
10.1038/bdj.2007.33
Johal A, Cheung MY, Marcenes W(2007). The impact of two different malocclusion traits on quality of life. Br Dent JE6-E6.
10.1038/bdj.2007.33
Johal A, Gill G, Ferman A, McLaughlin K(2007). The effect of mandibular advancement appliances on awake upper airway and masticatory muscle activity in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea. Clin Physiol Funct Imaging vol. 27, (1) 47-53.
10.1111/j.1475-097X.2007.00714.x
Johal A(2006). Health-related quality of life in patients with sleep-disordered breathing: effect of mandibular advancement appliances. J Prosthet Dent vol. 96, (4) 298-302.
10.1016/j.prosdent.2006.08.012
JOHAL A, Battagel JM, Hector MP(2006). Mandibular advancement splint therapy in subjects with sleep related breathing disorders: a clinical trial. Journal of Orthodontics
Johal A, Battagel JM, Kotecha BT(2005). Sleep nasendoscopy: a diagnostic tool for predicting treatment success with mandibular advancement splints in obstructive sleep apnoea. Eur J Orthod vol. 27, (6) 607-614.
10.1093/ejo/cji063
Johal A, Arya D, Winchester LJ, Venn PJH, Brooks H(2005). The effect of a mandibular advancement splint in subjects with sleep-related breathing disorders. Br Dent J vol. 199, (9) 591-596.
10.1038/sj.bdj.4812903
Battagel JM, Johal A, Kotecha BT(2005). Sleep nasendoscopy as a predictor of treatment success in snorers using mandibular advancement splints. J Laryngol Otol vol. 119, (2) 106-112.
10.1258/0022215053419916
Johal A, Conaghan C(2004). Maxillary morphology in obstructive sleep apnea: a cephalometric and model study. Angle Orthod vol. 74, (5) 648-656.
10.1043/0003-3219(2004)074<0648:MMIOSA>2.0.CO;2
JOHAL A, Battagel JM(2004). An investigation into the changes in airway dimension and the efficacy of mandibular advancement appliances in obstructive sleep apnoea. British Journal of Orthodontics vol. 26, 205-210.
10.1093/ortho/26.3.205
Johal A, Kirschen R(2003). Letters to the editor. Journal of Orthodontics vol. 30, (2)
10.1093/ortho/30.2.178-a
Johal A, Kirschen R(2003). The valuable contribution of space analysis in the planning and execution of orthodontic treatment. Journal of orthodontics vol. 30, (2)
Johal A(2002). The Orthoworld Specialist Practitioner Prize Cases 2000. J Orthod vol. 29, (4) 251-265.
10.1093/ortho/29.4.251
Ismail SFH, Johal AS(2002). Current products and practice section: The role of implants in orthodontics. Journal of Orthodontics vol. 29, (3) 239-245.
10.1093/ortho/29.3.239
Battagel JM, Johal A, Smith A-M, Kotecha B(2002). Postural variation in oropharyngeal dimensions in subjects with sleep disordered breathing: a cephalometric study. Eur J Orthod vol. 24, (3) 263-276.
10.1093/ejo/24.3.263
JOHAL A, Ismail SFH(2002). The role of implants in orthodontics. Journal of Orthodontics vol. 29, 239-245.
Johal A, Loh S, Heng JK(2001). A clinical investigation into the behaviour of crimpable archwire hooks. J Orthod vol. 28, (3) 203-205.
10.1093/ortho/28.3.203
Johal A, Battagel JM(2001). Current principles in the management of obstructive sleep apnoea with mandibular advancement appliances. Br Dent J vol. 190, (10) 532-536.
10.1038/sj.bdj.4801025
Battagel JM, Johal A(2000). A cephalometric comparison of normal weight and obese subjects with obstructive sleep apnoea. Radiography vol. 6, (4) 283-292.
10.1053/radi.2000.0280
Battagel JM, Johal A, L'Estrange RR, Croft CB, Kotecha B(1999). Changes in airway and hyoid position in response to mandibular protrusion in subjects with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). European Journal of Orthodontics vol. 21, (4) 363-376.
10.1093/ejo/21.4.363
Johal A, Ide M(1999). Orthodontics in the adult patient, with special reference to the periodontally compromised patient. Dental update vol. 26, (3)
10.12968/denu.1999.26.3.101
Johal AS, Lee RT(1998). The periodontal-orthodontic interface: a simple solution to a difficult problem. British journal of orthodontics vol. 25, (2) 95-99.
10.1093/ortho/25.2.95
Johal A(1998). The relationship between obstructive sleep apnoea and dentistry: 1. Aetiology and diagnosis. Dental update vol. 25, (9) 380-383.
Johal A(1998). The relationship between obstructive sleep apnoea and dentistry: 2. Management. Dental update vol. 25, (10) 474-477.
Johal AS(1997). Case report: infra-occluded deciduous molars: a review and alternative treatment approach. The European journal of prosthodontics and restorative dentistry vol. 5, (1) 5-9.
Johal AS, Battagel JM(1997). Dental crowding: A comparison of three methods of assessment. European Journal of Orthodontics vol. 19, (5) 543-551.
10.1093/ejo/19.5.543
Battagel JM, Johal AS, Crow VP(1996). The assessment of crowding without the need to record arch perimeter. Part II: Crowded and irregular arches. British journal of orthodontics vol. 23, (3) 229-236.
10.1179/bjo.23.3.229
Johal AS, Davies SJ, Franklin CD(1994). Condylar metastasis: a review and case report. British Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery vol. 32, (3) 180-182.
10.1016/0266-4356(94)90106-6
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