Skip to main content
Research

Publications: Prof Peter Congdon

Gramatica M, Liverani S, Congdon P ( 2021 ) . Bayesian modelling for spatially misaligned health areal data: a multiple membership approach . Journal of the Royal Statistical Society Series C: Applied Statistics
Curtis S, Cunningham N, Pearce J, Congdon P, Cherrie M, Atkinson S ( 2021 ) . Trajectories in mental health and socio-spatial conditions in a time of economic recovery and austerity: A longitudinal study in England 2011–17 . Social Science and Medicine vol. 270 ,
Congdon P ( 2021 ) . Bayesian Modeling of Spatial Data . Handbook of Regional Science ,
Congdon P ( 2021 ) . Mid-Epidemic Forecasts of COVID-19 Cases and Deaths: A Bivariate Model Applied to the UK . Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases vol. 2021 ,
Congdon P ( 2020 ) . The Upstream Environment for the Obesity Epidemic . Obesity and Diabetes ,
Congdon P ( 2020 ) . Geographical aspects of recent trends in drugrelated deaths, with a focus on intra-national contextual variation . International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health vol. 17 , ( 21 ) 1 - 18 .
Congdon P ( 2020 ) . A diabetes risk index for small areas in England . Health and Place vol. 63 ,
Congdon P ( 2020 ) . Modelling spatially varying coefficients via sparsity priors . Model Assisted Statistics and Applications vol. 15 , ( 2 ) 99 - 109 .
Congdon P ( 2020 ) . Assessing persistence in spatial clustering of disease, with an application to drug related deaths in scottish neighbourhoods . Epidemiology Biostatistics and Public Health vol. 16 , ( 4 )
Curtis S, Congdon P, Atkinson S, Corcoran R, MaGuire R, Peasgood T ( 2020 ) . Adverse conditions for wellbeing at the neighbourhood scale in England: Potential and challenges for operationalising indicators relevant to wellbeing in and of places . Wellbeing Space and Society vol. 1 ,
Baptista H, Congdon P, Mendes JM, Rodrigues AM, Canhão H, Dias SS ( 2020 ) . Disease mapping models for data with weak spatial dependence or spatial discontinuities . Epidemiologic Methods vol. 9 , ( 1 )
Bagheri N, Batterham PJ, Salvador-Carulla L, Chen Y, Page A, Calear AL, Congdon P ( 2019 ) . Development of the Australian neighborhood social fragmentation index and its association with spatial variation in depression across communities . Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology vol. 54 , ( 10 ) 1189 - 1198 .
Congdon P ( 2019 ) . Geographical patterns in drug-related mortality and suicide: Investigating commonalities in english small areas . International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health vol. 16 , ( 10 )
Congdon P ( 2019 ) . Obesity and urban environments . International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health vol. 16 , ( 3 )
Congdon P ( 2018 ) . Spatial heterogeneity in Bayesian disease mapping . GeoJournal
Zhao JH, Luan J, Congdon P ( 2018 ) . Bayesian linear mixed models with polygenic effects . Journal of Statistical Software vol. 85 ,
Congdon P ( 2017 ) . Quantile regression for overdispersed count data: a hierarchical method . Journal of Statistical Distributions and Applications vol. 4 , ( 1 )
Congdon P ( 2017 ) . Variations in Obesity Rates between US Counties: Impacts of Activity Access, Food Environments, and Settlement Patterns . Int J Environ Res Public Health vol. 14 , ( 9 ) Article E1023 ,
Jonker MF, D'Ippolito E, Eikemo TA, Congdon PD, Nante N, Mackenbach JP, Kamphuis CBM ( 2017 ) . The effect of regional politics on regional life expectancy in Italy (1980-2010) . Scand J Public Health vol. 45 , ( 2 ) 121 - 131 .
Congdon P ( 2017 ) . Representing spatial dependence and spatial discontinuity in ecological epidemiology: a scale mixture approach . Stochastic Environmental Research and Risk Assessment vol. 31 , ( 2 ) 291 - 304 .
Congdon P ( 2017 ) . Lyle D. Broemeling. BAYESIAN METHODS FOR REPEATED MEASURES. Boca Raton: Chapman & Hall/CRC Press, 568 pages, ISBN 978-1-4822-4819-7 . Biometrical Journal
Congdon P ( 2016 ) . Spatiotemporal frameworks for infectious disease diffusion and epidemiology . International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health vol. 13 , ( 12 )
Congdon P ( 2016 ) . Assessing Impacts on Unplanned Hospitalisations of Care Quality and Access Using a Structural Equation Method: With a Case Study of Diabetes . International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health vol. 13 , ( 9 )
Congdon P ( 2016 ) . A local join counts methodology for spatial clustering in disease from relative risk models . Communications in Statistics: Theory and Methods vol. 45 , ( 10 ) 3059 - 3075 .
Schofield P, Das-Munshi J, Mathur R, Congdon P, Hull S ( 2016 ) . Does depression diagnosis and antidepressant prescribing vary by location? Analysis of ethnic density associations using a large primary-care dataset . Psychological Medicine vol. 46 , ( 6 ) 1321 - 1329 .
Congdon P ( 2016 ) . Explaining variations in obesity and inactivity between US metropolitan areas . GeoJournal vol. 81 , ( 2 ) 211 - 229 .
Congdon P ( 2016 ) . Area variations in multiple morbidity using a life table methodology . Health Serv Outcomes Res Methodol vol. 16 , 58 - 74 .
Congdon P ( 2015 ) . Spatial variation in attributable risks . Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology vol. 12 , Article C , 39 - 52 .
Congdon P ( 2014 ) . Modelling changes in small area disability free life expectancy: trends in London wards between 2001 and 2011 . Stat Med vol. 33 , ( 29 ) 5138 - 5150 .
Congdon P ( 2014 ) . Modelling changes in Arctic Sea Ice Cover: an application of generalized and inflated beta and gamma densities . Journal of Statistical Distributions and Applications vol. 1 , ( 1 )
Congdon P ( 2014 ) . Bayesian Statistics in Quantitative Risk Assessment . Wiley StatsRef: Statistics Reference Online ,
Andreon S, Congdon P ( 2014 ) . The insignificant evolution of the richness-mass relation of galaxy clusters . ASTRONOMY & ASTROPHYSICS vol. 568 , Article ARTN A23 ,
Congdon P ( 2014 ) . Applied Bayesian Modelling: Second Edition .
Congdon P ( 2014 ) . Interpolation between spatial frameworks: an application of process convolution to estimating neighbourhood disease prevalence . Stat Methods Med Res vol. 23 , ( 2 ) 169 - 182 .
Congdon P ( 2014 ) . Estimating Life Expectancy in Small Areas, with an Application to Recent Changes in Life Expectancy in US Counties . Mortality in an International Perspective , Editors: Anson, J, Luy, M , Springer Science & Business Media
Congdon P ( 2014 ) . Bayesian spatial statistical modeling . Handbook of Regional Science ,
Congdon P ( 2014 ) . Estimating life expectancies for US small areas: a regression framework . JOURNAL OF GEOGRAPHICAL SYSTEMS vol. 16 , ( 1 ) 1 - 18 .
Congdon P ( 2013 ) . Spatially interpolated disease prevalence estimation using collateral indicators of morbidity and ecological risk . Int J Environ Res Public Health vol. 10 , ( 10 ) 5011 - 5025 .
Jonker MF, Congdon PD, van Lenthe FJ, Donkers B, Burdorf A, Mackenbach JP ( 2013 ) . Small-area health comparisons using health-adjusted life expectancies: A Bayesian random-effects approach . HEALTH & PLACE vol. 23 , 70 - 78 .
Congdon P ( 2013 ) . Modelling small-area inequality in premature mortality using years of life lost rates . JOURNAL OF GEOGRAPHICAL SYSTEMS vol. 15 , ( 2 ) 149 - 167 .
Congdon P ( 2013 ) . Forecasting demand for regional health care . International Series in Operations Research and Management Science , vol. 206 ,
Jonker MF, van Lenthe FJ, Donkers B, Congdon PD, Burdorf A, Mackenbach JP ( 2013 ) . The impact of nursing homes on small-area life expectancies . HEALTH & PLACE vol. 19 , 25 - 32 .
Congdon P ( 2012 ) . Assessing the impact of socioeconomic variables on small area variations in suicide outcomes in England . Int J Environ Res Public Health vol. 10 , ( 1 ) 158 - 177 .
Congdon P ( 2012 ) . Latent variable model for suicide risk in relation to social capital and socio-economic status . Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol vol. 47 , ( 8 ) 1205 - 1219 .
Jonker MF, van Lenthe FJ, CONGDON PD, Donkers B, Burdorf A, Mackenbach JP ( 2012 ) . Comparison of Bayesian Random-Effects and Traditional Life Expectancy Estimations in Small-Area Applications . American Journal of Epidemiology vol. 176 , ( 10 ) 929 - 937 .
Congdon P ( 2012 ) . Spatial Health Factors with Selection Among Multiple Causes: Lung Cancer in US Counties . COMMUNICATIONS IN STATISTICS-THEORY AND METHODS vol. 41 , ( 11 ) 1933 - 1953 .
Congdon P ( 2011 ) . The Spatial Pattern of Suicide in the US in Relation to Deprivation, Fragmentation and Rurality . URBAN STUD vol. 48 , ( 10 ) 2101 - 2122 .
Congdon P ( 2011 ) . Spatial path models with multiple indicators and multiple causes: mental health in US counties . Spat Spatiotemporal Epidemiol vol. 2 , ( 2 ) 103 - 116 .
CONGDON P ( 2011 ) . A spatial random-effects model for interzone flows: commuting in Northern Ireland . Journal of Applied Statistics
Congdon P ( 2011 ) . Explaining the Spatial Pattern of Suicide and Self-Harm Rates: A Case Study of East and South East England . APPLIED SPATIAL ANALYSIS AND POLICY vol. 4 , ( 1 ) 23 - 43 .
Congdon P, Lloyd P ( 2011 ) . Toxocara infection in the United States: the relevance of poverty, geography and demography as risk factors, and implications for estimating county prevalence . Int J Public Health vol. 56 , ( 1 ) 15 - 24 .
Congdon P ( 2011 ) . Structural equation models for area health outcomes with model selection . J APPL STAT vol. 38 , ( 4 ) 745 - 767 .
Congdon P ( 2010 ) . A multiple indicator, multiple cause method for representing social capital with an application to psychological distress . J GEOGR SYST vol. 12 , ( 1 ) 1 - 23 .
Congdon P ( 2010 ) . A Multilevel Model for Comorbid Outcomes: Obesity and Diabetes in the US . INT J ENV RES PUB HE vol. 7 , ( 2 ) 333 - 352 .
Congdon P ( 2010 ) . A spatial structural equation model with an application to area health needs . J STAT COMPUT SIM vol. 80 , ( 4 ) 401 - 412 .
Congdon P ( 2010 ) . Assessing Differential Area Mortality Trends via Bayesian Random Effects . COMMUN STAT-THEOR M vol. 39 , ( 12 ) 2205 - 2230 .
Congdon P ( 2010 ) . Estimating Prevalence of Coronary Heart Disease for Small Areas Using Collateral Indicators of Morbidity . INT J ENV RES PUB HE vol. 7 , ( 1 ) 164 - 177 .
CONGDON P ( 2010 ) . Random-effects models for migration attractivity and retentivity: a Bayesian methodology . vol. 173 , ( 4 ) 755 - 774 .
Congdon P ( 2010 ) . Random-effects models for migration attractivity and retentivity: a Bayesian methodology . J R STAT SOC A STAT vol. 173 , 755 - 774 .
Congdon P ( 2009 ) . Adaptive autoregressive priors for area and time structured mortality data . J STAT PLAN INFER vol. 139 , ( 9 ) 2870 - 2884 .
Congdon P, Lloyd P ( 2009 ) . Toxocara Infection in the United States: The Relevance of Poverty, Geography and Demography as Risk Factors and Implications for Estimating County Prevalence . Annals of Epidemiology vol. 19 , ( 9 )
Congdon P ( 2009 ) . Life Expectancies for Small Areas: A Bayesian Random Effects Methodology . INT STAT REV vol. 77 , ( 2 ) 222 - 240 .
Congdon P ( 2009 ) . Modelling the impact of socioeconomic structure on spatial health outcomes . COMPUT STAT DATA AN vol. 53 , ( 8 ) 3047 - 3056 .
LeSage J, Banerjee S, Fischer MM, Congdon P ( 2009 ) . Spatial statistics: Methods, models & computation . Computational Statistics and Data Analysis vol. 53 , ( 8 ) 2781 - 2785 .
Curtis S, Congdon P, Almog M, Ellermann R ( 2009 ) . County variation in use of inpatient and ambulatory psychiatric care in New York State 1999-2001: Need and supply influences in a structural model . HEALTH PLACE vol. 15 , ( 2 ) 568 - 577 .
Congdon P ( 2009 ) . A multilevel model for cardiovascular disease prevalence in the US and its application to micro area prevalence estimates . Int J Health Geogr vol. 8 ,
Washington S, Congdon P, Karlaftis MG, Mannering FL ( 2009 ) . Bayesian Multinomial Logit Theory and Route Choice Example . TRANSP RES RECORD ( 2136 ) 28 - 36 .
Congdon P ( 2008 ) . A spatially adaptive conditional autoregressive prior for area health data . Statistical Methodology vol. 5 , ( 6 ) 552 - 563 .
Congdon P ( 2008 ) . The need for psychiatric care in England: a spatial factor methodology . J GEOGR SYST vol. 10 , ( 3 ) 217 - 239 .
Congdon P ( 2008 ) . Bayesian Statistics in Quantitative Risk Assessment . Encyclopedia of Quantitative Risk Analysis and Assessment ,
Congdon P ( 2008 ) . A spatial structural equation model for health outcomes . J STAT PLAN INFER vol. 138 , ( 7 ) 2090 - 2105 .
Fagg J, Curtis S, Clark C, Congdon P, Stansfeld SA ( 2008 ) . Neighbourhood perceptions among inner-city adolescents: Relationships with their individual characteristics and with independently assessed neighbourhood conditions . Journal of Environmental Psychology vol. 28 , ( 2 ) 128 - 142 .
Congdon P ( 2008 ) . A bivariate frailty model for events with a permanent survivor fraction and non-monotonic hazards; with an application to age at first maternity . COMPUT STAT DATA AN vol. 52 , ( 9 ) 4346 - 4356 .
Congdon P ( 2008 ) . Estimating CHD prevalence by small area: integrating information from health surveys and area mortality . Health Place vol. 14 , ( 1 ) 59 - 75 .
Congdon P ( 2008 ) . Models for Migration Age Schedules: A Bayesian Perspective with an Application to Flows between Scotland and England . International Migration in Europe: Data, Models and Estimates ,
CONGDON P ( 2008 ) . Indirect area estimates of disease prevalence: Bayesian evidence synthesis with an application to CHD . Journal of Data Science vol. 6 , ( 1 ) 15 - 32 .
Congdon P, Almog M, Curtis S, Ellerman R ( 2007 ) . A spatial structural equation modelling framework for health count responses . Stat Med vol. 26 , ( 29 ) 5267 - 5284 .
Ghosh S, Das K, Congdon P ( 2007 ) . Analysis of marginally specified semi-nonparametric models for clustered binary data . Statistica Neerlandica vol. 61 , ( 3 ) 292 - 304 .
Congdon P ( 2007 ) . Bayesian statistical modelling: Second edition .
Congdon P ( 2007 ) . A model for spatial variations in life expectancy; mortality in Chinese regions in 2000 . INT J HEALTH GEOGR vol. 6 , Article 16 ,
Congdon P ( 2007 ) . Model weights for model choice and averaging . Statistical Methodology vol. 4 , ( 2 ) 143 - 157 .
Congdon P ( 2007 ) . Mixtures of spatial and unstructured effects for spatially discontinuous health outcomes . COMPUT STAT DATA AN vol. 51 , ( 6 ) 3197 - 3212 .
Congdon P ( 2007 ) . Bayesian modelling strategies for spatially varying regression coefficients: A multivariate perspective for multiple outcomes . COMPUT STAT DATA AN vol. 51 , ( 5 ) 2586 - 2601 .
Congdon P ( 2007 ) . Gaussian Markov random fields: Theory and applications . J ROY STAT SOC A STA vol. 170 , 858 - 858 .
Congdon P ( 2006 ) . Estimating population prevalence of psychiatric conditions by small area with applications to analysing outcome and referral variations . HEALTH PLACE vol. 12 , ( 4 ) 465 - 478 .
Congdon P ( 2006 ) . Modelling multiple hospital outcomes: the impact of small area and primary care practice variation . Int J Health Geogr vol. 5 ,
Fagg J, Curtis S, Stansfeld S, Congdon P ( 2006 ) . Psychological distress among adolescents, and its relationship to individual, family and area characteristics in East London . Soc Sci Med vol. 63 , ( 3 ) 636 - 648 .
Congdon P ( 2006 ) . A model for geographical variation in health and total life expectancy . DEMOGR RES vol. 14 , 157 - 178 .
Congdon P ( 2006 ) . A model framework for mortality and health data classified by age, area, and time . BIOMETRICS vol. 62 , ( 1 ) 269 - 278 .
Congdon P ( 2006 ) . Estimating diabetes prevalence by small area in England . J PUBLIC HEALTH vol. 28 , ( 1 ) 71 - 81 .
Curtis S, Copeland A, Fagg J, Congdon P, Almog M, Fitzpatrick J ( 2006 ) . The ecological relationship between deprivation, social isolation and rates of hospital admission for acute psychiatric care: a comparison of London and New York City . Health Place vol. 12 , ( 1 ) 19 - 37 .
Congdon P ( 2006 ) . Bayesian model comparison via parallel model output . J STAT COMPUT SIM vol. 76 , ( 2 ) 149 - 165 .
Congdon P ( 2006 ) . A model for non-parametric spatially varying regression effects . COMPUT STAT DATA AN vol. 50 , ( 2 ) 422 - 445 .
Congdon P ( 2006 ) . Bayesian model choice based on Monte Carlo estimates of posterior model probabilities . COMPUT STAT DATA AN vol. 50 , ( 2 ) 346 - 357 .
Congdon P ( 2006 ) . Discrete Spatial Data . Bayesian Models for Categorical Data ,
Congdon P ( 2006 ) . Further Questions in Binomial and Count Regression . Bayesian Models for Categorical Data ,
Congdon P ( 2006 ) . Hierarchical and Panel Data Models . Bayesian Models for Categorical Data ,
Congdon P ( 2006 ) . Missing‚ÄźData Models . Bayesian Models for Categorical Data ,
Congdon P ( 2006 ) . Model Comparison and Choice . Bayesian Models for Categorical Data ,
Congdon P ( 2006 ) . Models for Binary and Count Outcomes . Bayesian Models for Categorical Data ,
Congdon P ( 2006 ) . Ordinal Regression . Bayesian Models for Categorical Data ,
Congdon P ( 2006 ) . Principles of Bayesian Inference . Bayesian Models for Categorical Data ,
Congdon P ( 2006 ) . Random Effect and Latent Variable Models for Multicategory Outcomes . Bayesian Models for Categorical Data ,
Congdon P ( 2006 ) . Regression for Metric Outcomes . Bayesian Models for Categorical Data ,
Congdon P ( 2006 ) . Time Series Models for Discrete Variables . Bayesian Models for Categorical Data ,
CONGDON PD ( 2006 ) . A spatio-remporal forecasting approach for health indicators . Journal of Data Science vol. 5 ,
CONGDON P ( 2006 ) . Bayesian Statistical Modelling . Wiley ( Chichester ),
Congdon P ( 2006 ) . Forecasting Demand for Regional Healthcare . Patient Flow: Reducing Delay in Healthcare Delivery , vol. 91 ,
CONGDON PD ( 2006 ) . Forecasting Regional Demand for Acute Health Care . Delay Management in Health Care Systems , Springer
Congdon P ( 2006 ) . Forecasting demand for regional healthcare . International Series in Operations Research and Management Science , vol. 91 ,
Congdon P, Clarke T ( 2005 ) . Assessing intervention effects in a community-based trial to reduce self-harm: A methodological case study . PUBLIC HEALTH vol. 119 , ( 11 ) 1011 - 1015 .
Chapman J, Congdon P, Shaw S, Carter YH ( 2005 ) . The geographical distribution of specialists in public health in the United Kingdom: is capacity related to need? . Public Health vol. 119 , ( 7 ) 639 - 646 .
Congdon P ( 2005 ) . Wiley Series in Probability and Statistics . Bayesian Models for Categorical Data ,
Congdon P ( 2005 ) . Markov Chain Monte Carlo and Bayesian Statistics . Encyclopedia of Statistics in Behavioral Science ,
Congdon P ( 2005 ) . Bayesian predictive model comparison via parallel sampling . COMPUT STAT DATA AN vol. 48 , ( 4 ) 735 - 753 .
CONGDON P ( 2005 ) . Bayesian Methods for Categorical Data . Wiley ( Chichester ),
CONGDON PD ( 2005 ) . MCMC and Bayesian Methods . Encyclopedia of Statistics in the Behavioural Sciences , Wiley
Chapman J, Shaw S, Congdon P, Carter YH, Abbott S, Petchey R ( 2005 ) . Specialist public health capacity in England: working in the new primary care organizations . PUBLIC HEALTH vol. 119 , ( 1 ) 22 - 31 .
Congdon P, Southall H ( 2005 ) . Trends in inequality in infant mortality in the North of England, 1921-1973, and their association with urban and social structure . J R STAT SOC A STAT vol. 168 , 679 - 700 .
Congdon P, Southall H ( 2004 ) . Small area variations in infant mortality in England and Wales in the inter-war period and their link with socio-economic factors . HEALTH PLACE vol. 10 , ( 4 ) 363 - 382 .
Congdon P ( 2004 ) . Commentary: Contextual effects: index construction and technique . INT J EPIDEMIOL vol. 33 , ( 4 ) 741 - 742 .
Congdon P ( 2004 ) . A multivariate model for spatio-temporal health outcomes with an application to suicide mortality . GEOGR ANAL vol. 36 , ( 3 ) 234 - 258 .
Almog M, Curtis S, Copeland A, Congdon P ( 2004 ) . Geographical variation in acute psychiatric admissions within New York City 1990-2000: growing inequalities in service use? . SOC SCI MED vol. 59 , ( 2 ) 361 - 376 .
Congdon P ( 2004 ) . Modelling trends and inequality in small area mortality . J APPL STAT vol. 31 , ( 6 ) 603 - 622 .
Curtis S, Southall H, Congdon P, Dodgeon B ( 2004 ) . Area effects on health variation over the life-course: analysis of the longitudinal study sample in England using new data on area of residence in childhood . Soc Sci Med vol. 58 , ( 1 ) 57 - 74 .
CONGDON PD ( 2004 ) . Contextual Effects: index construction and technique . International Journal of Epidemiology. vol. 33 , 741 - 742 .
Curtis S, Stansfeld S, CONGDON PD, Fagg J ( 2004 ) . Neighbourhood influences on adolesecent health in East London . Featuring the Quality of Urban Life in Contemporary Cities of Eastern and Western Europe , Editors: Sagan, I, Czepczinski, ME , Bogucki Wydawnictwo Naukowe ( Gdansk-Poznan ),
CONGDON P ( 2003 ) . Applied Bayesian models . J. Wiley ( Chichester ),
CONGDON PD ( 2003 ) . Modelling Spatially Varying Impacts of Socio Economic Predictors on Mortality Outcomes . Journal of Geographical Systems. vol. 5 , 161 - 184 .
Congdon P ( 2002 ) . A model for mental health needs and resourcing in small geographic areas: A multivariate spatial perspective . GEOGR ANAL vol. 34 , ( 2 ) 168 - 186 .
CONGDON PD ( 2002 ) . A life table approach to small area health need profiling . Statistical Modelling. vol. 2 , 63 - 88 .
Congdon P ( 2001 ) . The development of gravity models for hospital patient flows under system change: a Bayesian modelling approach . Health Care Manag Sci vol. 4 , ( 4 ) 289 - 304 .
Congdon P ( 2001 ) . Health status and healthy life measures for population health need assessment: modelling variability and uncertainty . HEALTH PLACE vol. 7 , ( 1 ) 13 - 25 .
Congdon P ( 2001 ) . Predicting adverse infant health outcomes using routine screening variables: modelling the impact of interdependent risk factors . JOURNAL OF APPLIED STATISTICS vol. 28 , ( 2 ) 183 - 197 .
CONGDON PD, Jones IR, Gregory IN, Campos R, Curtis S, Southall HR ( 2001 ) . Quantifying and explaining changes in geographical inequality of infant mortality in England and Wales since the 1890s . International Journal of Population Geography vol. 7 , ( 1 ) 35 - 51 .
CONGDON P ( 2001 ) . Bayesian Statistical Modelling . Wiley ( Chichester ),
Congdon P, Smith A, Dean C ( 1998 ) . Assessing psychiatric morbidity from community registers: Methods for Bayesian adjustment . Urban Studies vol. 35 , ( 12 ) 2323 - 2352 .