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Research

Publications: Prof Aine McKnight

Chandran A, Rosenheim J, Nageswaran G, Swadling L, Pollara G, Gupta RK, Burton AR, Guerra-Assunção JA et al. ( 2022 ) . Rapid synchronous type 1 IFN and virus-specific T cell responses characterize first wave non-severe SARS-CoV-2 infections . Cell Reports Medicine vol. 3 , ( 3 )
Astbury S, Reynolds CJ, Butler DK, Muñoz-Sandoval DC, Lin K-M, Pieper FP, Otter A, Kouraki A et al. ( 2022 ) . HLA-DR polymorphism in SARS-CoV-2 infection and susceptibility to symptomatic COVID-19 . Immunology
Reynolds CJ, Gibbons JM, Pade C, Lin KM, Sandoval DM, Pieper F, Butler DK, Liu S et al. ( 2022 ) . Heterologous infection and vaccination shapes immunity against SARS-CoV-2 variants . Science vol. 375 , ( 6577 ) 183 - 192 .
Usai C, Gibbons JM, Pade C, Li W, Jacobs SRM, McKnight A, Kennedy PTF, Gill US ( 2022 ) . The β-NGF/TrkA Signalling Pathway Is Associated With the Production of Anti-Nucleoprotein IgG in Convalescent COVID-19 . Frontiers in Immunology vol. 12 ,
Mcknight A, Pade C, Gibbons J ( 2021 ) . Pre-existing polymerase-specific T cells expand in abortive seronegative SARS-CoV-2 . Nature
Joy G, Artico J, Kurdi H, Seraphim A, Lau C, Thornton GD, Oliveira MF, Adam RD et al. ( 2021 ) . Prospective Case-Control Study of Cardiovascular Abnormalities 6 Months Following Mild COVID-19 in Healthcare Workers . JACC: Cardiovascular Imaging vol. 14 , ( 11 ) 2155 - 2166 .
Gupta RK, Rosenheim J, Bell LC, Chandran A, Guerra-Assuncao JA, Pollara G, Whelan M, Artico J et al. ( 2021 ) . Blood transcriptional biomarkers of acute viral infection for detection of pre-symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection: a nested, case-control diagnostic accuracy study . Lancet Microbe vol. 2 , ( 10 ) e508 - e517 .
Reynolds CJ, Pade C, Gibbons JM, Butler DK, Otter AD, Menacho K, Fontana M, Smit A et al. ( 2021 ) . Prior SARS-CoV-2 infection rescues B and T cell responses to variants after first vaccine dose . Science vol. 372 , ( 6549 ) 1418 - 1423 .
Valdes AM, Moon JC, Vijay A, Chaturvedi N, Norrish A, Ikram A, Craxford S, Cusin LML et al. ( 2021 ) . Longitudinal assessment of symptoms and risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection in healthcare workers across 5 hospitals to understand ethnic differences in infection risk . EClinicalMedicine vol. 34 ,
Manisty C, Otter AD, Treibel TA, McKnight Á, Altmann DM, Brooks T, Noursadeghi M, Boyton RJ et al. ( 2021 ) . Antibody response to first BNT162b2 dose in previously SARS-CoV-2-infected individuals . The Lancet vol. 397 , ( 10279 ) 1057 - 1058 .
Manisty C, Treibel TA, Jensen M, Semper A, Joy G, Gupta RK, Cutino-Moguel T, Andiapen M et al. ( 2021 ) . Time series analysis and mechanistic modelling of heterogeneity and sero-reversion in antibody responses to mild SARS‑CoV-2 infection . EBioMedicine vol. 65 ,
Reynolds CJ, Swadling L, Gibbons JM, Pade C, Jensen MP, Diniz MO, Schmidt NM, Butler DK et al. ( 2020 ) . Discordant neutralizing antibody and T cell responses in asymptomatic and mild SARS-CoV-2 infection . Science Immunology vol. 5 , ( 54 )
Augusto JB, Menacho K, Andiapen M, Bowles R, Burton M, Welch S, Bhuva AN, Seraphim A et al. ( 2020 ) . Healthcare Workers Bioresource: Study outline and baseline characteristics of a prospective healthcare worker cohort to study immune protection and pathogenesis in COVID-19 . Wellcome Open Research vol. 5 , 179 - 179 .
Treibel TA, Manisty C, Burton M, McKnight Á, Lambourne J, Augusto JB, Couto-Parada X, Cutino-Moguel T et al. ( 2020 ) . COVID-19: PCR screening of asymptomatic health-care workers at London hospital . The Lancet vol. 395 , ( 10237 ) 1608 - 1610 .
Gibbons JM, Marno KM, Pike R, Lee WYJ, Jones CE, Ogunkolade BW, Pardieu C, Bryan A et al. ( 2020 ) . HIV-1 accessory protein Vpr interacts with ReaF/RPRD2 to mitigate its antiviral activity . Journal of Virology vol. 94 , ( 4 )
Gibbons J, Marno K, Pike R, Lee J, Jones C, Ogunkolade W, Pardieu C, Warnes G et al. ( 2019 ) . HIV-1 Vpr accessory protein interacts with REAF and mitigates its associated anti-viral activity . Access Microbiology vol. 1 , ( 1A )
Gibbons J, Lee W-YJ, McKnight Á ( 2019 ) . HIV-1 infectivity of cells is enhanced at mitosis: a role for Vpr? . Access Microbiology vol. 1 , ( 1A )
Bourke NM, Napoletano S, Bannan C, Ahmed S, Bergin C, McKnight Á, Stevenson NJ ( 2018 ) . Control of HIV infection by IFN-α: implications for latency and a cure . Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences vol. 75 , ( 5 ) 775 - 783 .
McCoy LE, McKnight A ( 2017 ) . Lessons learned from humoral responses of HIV patients . Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS vol. 12 , ( 3 ) 195 - 202 .
McCoy LE, McKnight Á ( 2017 ) . Lessons learned from humoral responses of HIV patients . Curr Opin HIV AIDS vol. 12 , ( 3 ) 195 - 202 .
MCKNIGHT A ( 2017 ) . RNA-Associated Early-Stage Antiviral Factor Is a Major Component of Lv2 Restriction . Journal of Virology
Jones CE, McKnight Á ( 2016 ) . Retroviral restriction: Nature's own solution . Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases vol. 29 , ( 6 ) 609 - 614 .
Dreja H, Pade C, Chen L, McKnight Á ( 2015 ) . CD4 binding site broadly neutralizing antibody selection of HIV-1 escape mutants . Journal of General Virology vol. 96 , ( 7 ) 1899 - 1905 .
Deayton J, O'Sullivan E, McKnight A, Groves K, Bibby D, Clark D, Orkin C, Reeves I et al. ( 2015 ) . Disease progression in HIV-1 controllers; uptake and outcome of antiretroviral therapy . HIV MEDICINE vol. 16 , 20 - 20 .
Marno K, Al'Zoubi L, Pearson M, Posch M, McKnight Á, Wheeler AP ( 2015 ) . The evolution of structured illumination microscopy in studies of HIV . Methods vol. 88 , 20 - 27 .
Marno KM, Ogunkolade BW, Pade C, Oliveira NMM, O'Sullivan E, McKnight Á ( 2014 ) . Novel restriction factor RNA-associated early-stage anti-viral factor (REAF) inhibits human and simian immunodeficiency viruses . Retrovirology vol. 11 ,
Alonso AG, Marno K, Ogunkolade W, Diaz-Delfin J, O'Sullivan E, McKnight A ( 2013 ) . Human PAF1 inhibition of HIV-1 . RETROVIROLOGY vol. 10 , Article ARTN P39 , S21 - S22 .
Marno K, Ogunkolade B, Pade C, Oliveira N, O'Sullivan E, McKnight A ( 2013 ) . Novel restriction factor RNA-associated early-stage anti-viral factor (REAF) inhibits human and simian immunodefi ciency viruses . RETROVIROLOGY vol. 10 , Article ARTN P57 , S26 - S26 .
McKnight A ( 2013 ) . The ins and outs of HIV restriction . RETROVIROLOGY vol. 10 , Article ARTN O30 , S6 - S6 .
Groves KC, Bibby DF, Clark DA, Isaksen A, Deayton JR, Anderson J, Orkin C, Stagg AJ et al. ( 2012 ) . Disease Progression in HIV-1-Infected Viremic Controllers . J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr vol. 61 , ( 4 ) 407 - 416 .
Tang J, Wang L, Markiv A, Jeffs SA, Dreja H, McKnight A, He M, Kang AS ( 2012 ) . Accessing of recombinant human monoclonal antibodies from patient libraries by eukaryotic ribosome display . Human Antibodies vol. 21 , ( 1-2 ) 1 - 11 .
Tang J, Wang L, Markiv A, Jeffs SA, Dreja H, McKnight Á, He M, Kang AS ( 2012 ) . Accessing of recombinant human monoclonal antibodies from patient libraries by eukaryotic ribosome display . Hum Antibodies vol. 21 , ( 1-2 ) 1 - 11 .
Liu L, Oliveira NMM, Cheney KM, Pade C, Dreja H, Bergin A-MH, Borgdorff V, Beach DH et al. ( 2011 ) . A whole genome screen for HIV restriction factors . Retrovirology vol. 8 ,
Harrison IP, McKnight A ( 2011 ) . Cellular entry via an actin and clathrin-dependent route is required for Lv2 restriction of HIV-2 . Virology vol. 415 , ( 1 ) 47 - 55 .
Dreja H, O'Sullivan E, Pade C, Greene KM, Gao H, Aubin K, Hand J, Isaksen A et al. ( 2010 ) . Neutralization activity in a geographically diverse East London cohort of human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected patients: clade C infection results in a stronger and broader humoral immune response than clade B infection . J Gen Virol vol. 91 , ( Pt 11 ) 2794 - 2803 .
Oliveira NMM, Trikha R, McKnight Á ( 2010 ) . A novel envelope mediated post entry restriction of murine leukaemia virus in human cells is Ref1/TRIM5α independent . Retrovirology vol. 7 ,
Groves K, Bibby D, Clark D, Isaksen A, Deayton J, Anderson J, Orkin C, Stagg AJ et al. ( 2010 ) . Disease Progression Despite Suppressed Plasma Viral Load in Human Immunodeficiency Infected Viremic Controllers . AIDS RESEARCH AND HUMAN RETROVIRUSES . vol. 26 , A163 - A163 .
Aasa-Chapman M, Hue S, Cheney KM, Forsman A, McKnight A ( 2010 ) . Tier 1-like neutralization sensitive HIV-1 viruses develop in vivo despite the development and onslaught of potent neutralizing antibodies . AIDS RESEARCH AND HUMAN RETROVIRUSES . vol. 26 , A158 - A158 .
Koh WWL, Forsman A, Hué S, van der Velden GJ, Yirrell DL, McKnight A, Weiss RA, Aasa-Chapman MMI ( 2010 ) . Novel subtype C human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelopes cloned directly from plasma: coreceptor usage and neutralization phenotypes . J Gen Virol vol. 91 , ( Pt 9 ) 2374 - 2380 .
Richards KH, Aasa-Chapman MMI, McKnight A, Clapham PR ( 2010 ) . Modulation of HIV-1 macrophage-tropism among R5 envelopes occurs before detection of neutralizing antibodies . RETROVIROLOGY vol. 7 , Article 48 ,
Deayton J, Bibby D, Orkin C, O'Sullivan E, McKnight A, Clark D ( 2010 ) . Inter-clade dual HIV-1 infection in the UK - an emerging phenomenon .
Kelly BA, Harrison I, McKnight A, Dobson CB ( 2010 ) . Anti-infective activity of apolipoprotein domain derived peptides in vitro: identification of novel antimicrobial peptides related to apolipoprotein B with anti-HIV activity . BMC IMMUNOL vol. 11 , Article 13 ,
Corti D, Langedijk JPM, Hinz A, Seaman MS, Vanzetta F, Fernandez-Rodriguez BM, Silacci C, Pinna D et al. ( 2010 ) . Analysis of Memory B Cell Responses and Isolation of Novel Monoclonal Antibodies with Neutralizing Breadth from HIV-1-Infected Individuals . PLOS ONE vol. 5 , ( 1 ) Article e8805 ,
Cheney KM, McKnight A ( 2010 ) . Interferon-Alpha Mediates Restriction of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type-1 Replication in Primary Human Macrophages at an Early Stage of Replication . PLoS One vol. 5 , ( 10 )
Doyle T, Garcia-Diaz A, Booth C, Dreja H, McKnight A, Johnson M, Geretti AM ( 2009 ) . High-risk sexual behaviour and HIV-1 superinfection: an indication for early initiation of antiretroviral therapy? . HIV MED vol. 10 , 54 - 55 .
Groves KC, Bibby D, Isaksen A, Deayton J, Anderson J, Orkin C, Stagg AJ, McKnight A ( 2009 ) . Altered T cell homeostasis and activation in HIV-1 elite suppressors with low CD4+T-cell counts . RETROVIROLOGY vol. 6 , Article P250 ,
Dibben O, Assa-Chapman M, Lewis J, McKnight A, Williams I, Borrow P ( 2009 ) . Investigation of the sensitivity of acute-phase HIV-1 isolates to type I interferons . RETROVIROLOGY vol. 6 , Article P4 ,
Dreja H, O'Sullivan E, Pade C, Aubin K, Isaksen A, D'Souza C, Hand J, Orkin C et al. ( 2009 ) . Neutralisation activity in a geographically diverse East London cohort of HIV-1 infected patients . RETROVIROLOGY vol. 6 , Article P63 ,
Forsman A, Beirnaert E, Aasa-Chapman MMI, Hoorelbeke B, Hijazi K, Koh W, Tack V, Szynol A et al. ( 2008 ) . Llama antibody fragments with cross-subtype human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-neutralizing properties and high affinity for HIV-1 gp120 . J Virol vol. 82 , ( 24 ) 12069 - 12081 .
Corti D, Pinna D, Vanzetta F, Balla S, Dreja H, O'Sullivan E, Pade C, Hinz A et al. ( 2008 ) . A Panel of HIV-1 Neutralizing Antibodies Isolated from Non-clade B HIV-1 Infected Donors . AIDS RESEARCH AND HUMAN RETROVIRUSES . vol. 24 , 3 - 3 .
Weiss RA, Willey S, Aasa-Chapman M, McKnight A ( 2008 ) . Role of Complement in HIV Infection: A 2-edged Sword? . AIDS RESEARCH AND HUMAN RETROVIRUSES . vol. 24 , 84 - 84 .
McKnight A, Aasa-Chapman MMI ( 2007 ) . Clade specific neutralising vaccines for HIV: an appropriate target? . Curr HIV Res vol. 5 , ( 6 ) 554 - 560 .
Kelly BA, Neil SJ, McKnight A, Santos JM, Sinnis P, Jack ER, Middleton DA, Dobson CB ( 2007 ) . Apolipoprotein E-derived antimicrobial peptide analogues with altered membrane affinity and increased potency and breadth of activity . FEBS J vol. 274 , ( 17 ) 4511 - 4525 .
Aasa-Chapman MMI, Seymour CR, Williams I, McKnight A ( 2006 ) . Novel envelope determinants for CCR3 use by human immunodeficiency virus . J Virol vol. 80 , ( 21 ) 10884 - 10889 .
Aasa-Chapman MMI, Aubin K, Williams I, McKnight A ( 2006 ) . Primary CCR5 only using HIV-1 isolates does not accurately represent the in vivo replicating quasi-species . Virology vol. 351 , ( 2 ) 489 - 496 .
Marchant D, Neil SJD, McKnight Á ( 2006 ) . Human immunodeficiency virus types 1 and 2 have different replication kinetics in human primary macrophage culture . J Gen Virol vol. 87 , ( Pt 2 ) 411 - 418 .
Marchant D, Neil SJD, Aubin K, Schmitz C, McKnight A ( 2005 ) . An envelope-determined, pH-independent endocytic route of viral entry determines the susceptibility of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and HIV-2 to Lv2 restriction . J Virol vol. 79 , ( 15 ) 9410 - 9418 .
Neil SJD, Aasa-Chapman MMI, Clapham PR, Nibbs RJ, McKnight A, Weiss RA ( 2005 ) . The promiscuous CC chemokine receptor D6 is a functional coreceptor for primary isolates of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and HIV-2 on astrocytes . J Virol vol. 79 , ( 15 ) 9618 - 9624 .
Neil SJD, McKnight A, Gustafsson K, Weiss RA ( 2005 ) . HIV-1 incorporates ABO histo-blood group antigens that sensitize virions to complement-mediated inactivation . Blood vol. 105 , ( 12 ) 4693 - 4699 .
Aasa-Chapman MMI, Holuigue S, Aubin K, Wong M, Jones NA, Cornforth D, Pellegrino P, Newton P et al. ( 2005 ) . Detection of antibody-dependent complement-mediated inactivation of both autologous and heterologous virus in primary human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection . J Virol vol. 79 , ( 5 ) 2823 - 2830 .
Aasa-Chapman MMI, Hayman A, Newton P, Cornforth D, Williams I, Borrow P, Balfe P, McKnight A ( 2004 ) . Development of the antibody response in acute HIV-1 infection . AIDS vol. 18 , ( 3 ) 371 - 381 .
Schmitz C, Marchant D, Neil SJD, Aubin K, Reuter S, Dittmar MT, McKnight A ( 2004 ) . Lv2, a novel postentry restriction, is mediated by both capsid and envelope . J Virol vol. 78 , ( 4 ) 2006 - 2016 .
McKnight A, Weiss RA ( 2003 ) . Blocking the docking of HIV-1 . Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A vol. 100 , ( 19 ) 10581 - 10582 .
Morner A, Thomas JA, Bjorling E, Munson PJ, Lucas SB, McKnight A ( 2003 ) . Productive HIV-2 infection in the brain is restricted to macrophages/microglia . AIDS vol. 17 , ( 10 ) 1451 - 1455 .
Willey SJ, Reeves JD, Hudson R, Miyake K, Dejucq N, Schols D, De Clercq E, Bell J et al. ( 2003 ) . Identification of a subset of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), HIV-2, and simian immunodeficiency virus strains able to exploit an alternative coreceptor on untransformed human brain and lymphoid cells . J VIROL vol. 77 , ( 11 ) 6138 - 6152 .
Thomas ER, Shotton C, Weiss RA, Clapham PR, McKnight A ( 2003 ) . CD4-dependent and CD4-independent HIV-2: consequences for neutralization . AIDS vol. 17 , ( 3 ) 291 - 300 .
Willey S, Roulet V, Reeves JD, Kergadallan M-L, Thomas E, McKnight A, Jégou B, Dejucq-Rainsford N ( 2003 ) . Human Leydig cells are productively infected by some HIV-2 and SIV strains but not by HIV-1 . AIDS vol. 17 , ( 2 ) 183 - 188 .
Clapham PR, McKnight A ( 2002 ) . Cell surface receptors, virus entry and tropism of primate lentiviruses . J GEN VIROL vol. 83 , 1809 - 1829 .
McKnight A, Griffiths DJ, Dittmar M, Clapham P, Thomas E ( 2001 ) . Characterization of a late entry event in the replication cycle of human immunodeficiency virus type 2 . J Virol vol. 75 , ( 15 ) 6914 - 6922 .
Clapham PR, McKnight A ( 2001 ) . HIV-1 receptors and cell tropism . BRIT MED BULL vol. 58 , 43 - 59 .
McKnight A ( 1999 ) . HIV . Current Biology vol. 9 , ( 7 )
Clapham PR, Reeves JD, Simmons G, Dejucq N, Hibbitts S, McKnight A ( 1999 ) . HIV coreceptors, cell tropism and inhibition by chemokine receptor ligands . Molecular Membrane Biology . vol. 16 , 49 - 55 .
Reeves JD, Hibbitts S, Simmons G, McKnight A, Azevedo-Pereira JM, Moniz-Pereira J, Clapham PR ( 1999 ) . Primary human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) isolates infect CD4- negative cells via CCR5 and CXCR4: Comparison with HIV-1 and simian immunodeficiency virus and relevance to cell tropism in vivo . Journal of Virology vol. 73 , ( 9 ) 7795 - 7804 .
McKnight A, Dittmar MT, Moniz-Periera J, Ariyoshi K, Reeves JD, Hibbitts S, Whitby D, Aarons E et al. ( 1998 ) . A broad range of chemokine receptors are used by primary isolates of human immunodeficiency virus type 2 as coreceptors with CD4 . Journal of Virology vol. 72 , ( 5 ) 4065 - 4071 .
Simmons G, Reeves JD, McKnight A, Dejucq N, Hibbitts S, Power CA, Aarons E, Schols D et al. ( 1998 ) . CXCR4 as a functional coreceptor for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection of primary macrophages . Journal of Virology vol. 72 , ( 10 ) 8453 - 8457 .
Reeves JD, McKnight A, Potempa S, Simmons G, Gray PW, Power CA, Wells T, Weiss RA et al. ( 1997 ) . CD4-independent infection by HIV-2 (ROD/B): Use of the 7-transmembrane receptors CXCR-4, CCR-3, and V28 for entry . Virology vol. 231 , ( 1 ) 130 - 134 .
Picard L, Wilkinson DA, McKnight A, Gray PW, Hoxie JA, Clapham PR, Weiss RA ( 1997 ) . Role of the amino-terminal extracellular domain of CXCR-4 in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 entry . Virology vol. 231 , ( 1 ) 105 - 111 .
Dittmar MT, McKnight A, Simmons G, Clapham PR, Weiss RA, Simmonds P ( 1997 ) . HIV-1 tropism and co-receptor use . Nature vol. 385 , ( 6616 ) 495 - 496 .
McKnight A, Wilkinson D, Simmons G, Talbot S, Picard L, Ahuja M, Marsh M, Hoxie JA et al. ( 1997 ) . Inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus fusion by a monoclonal antibody to a coreceptor (CXCR4) is both cell type and virus strain dependent . Journal of Virology vol. 71 , ( 2 ) 1692 - 1696 .
Endres MJ, Clapham PR, Marsh M, Ahuja M, Turner JD, McKnight A, Thomas JF, Stoebenau-Haggarty B et al. ( 1996 ) . CD4-independent infection by HIV-2 is mediated by Fusin/CXCR4 . Cell vol. 87 , ( 4 ) 745 - 756 .
Clapham PR, McKnight A, Talbot S, Wilkinson D ( 1996 ) . HIV entry into cells by CD4-independent mechanisms . Perspectives in Drug Discovery and Design vol. 5 , 83 - 92 .
McKnight A, Shotton C, Cordell J, Jones I, Simmons G, Clapham PR ( 1996 ) . Location, exposure, and conservation of neutralizing and nonneutralizing epitopes on human immunodeficiency virus type 2 SU glycoprotein . Journal of Virology vol. 70 , ( 7 ) 4598 - 4606 .
Simmons G, McKnight À, Takeuchi Y, Hoshino H, Clapham PR ( 1995 ) . Cell-to-Cell Fusion, but Not Virus Entry in Macrophages by T-Cell Line Tropic HIV-1 Strains: A V3 Loop-Determined Restriction . Virology vol. 209 , ( 2 ) 696 - 700 .
McKnight A, Weiss RA, Shotton C, Takeuchi Y, Hoshino H, Clapham PR ( 1995 ) . Change in tropism upon immune escape by human immunodeficiency virus . Journal of Virology vol. 69 , ( 5 ) 3167 - 3170 .
McKnight A, Clapham PR ( 1995 ) . Immune escape and tropism of HIV . Trends in Microbiology vol. 3 , ( 9 ) 356 - 361 .
McKnight A, Clapham PR, Weiss RA ( 1994 ) . HIV-2 and SIV infection of nonprimate cell lines expressing human CD4: Restrictions to replication at distinct stages . Virology vol. 201 , ( 1 ) 8 - 18 .
Broder CC, Nussbaum O, Gutheil WG, Bachovchin WW, Berger EA, Patience C, McKnight A, Clapham PR et al. ( 1994 ) . CD26 antigen and HIV fusion? . Science vol. 264 , ( 5162 ) 1156 - 1165 .
Schutten M, McKnight A, Huisman RC, Thali M, McKeating JA, Sodroski J, Goudsmit J, Osterhaus AD ( 1993 ) . Further characterization of an antigenic site of HIV-1 gp120 recognized by virus neutralizing human monoclonal antibodies . AIDS vol. 7 , ( 7 ) 919 - 923 .
Clapham P, McKnight A, Simmons G, Weiss R ( 1993 ) . Is CD4 sufficient for HIV entry? Cell surface molecules involved in HIV infection . Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences vol. 342 , ( 1299 ) 67 - 73 .
McKnight A, Clapham PR, Goudsmit J, Cheingsong-Popov R, Weber JN, Weiss RA ( 1992 ) . Development of HIV-1 group-specific neutralizing antibodies after seroconversion . AIDS vol. 6 , ( 8 ) 799 - 802 .
Clapham PR, McKnight A, Weiss RA ( 1992 ) . Human immunodeficiency virus type 2 infection and fusion of CD4-negative human cell lines: Induction and enhancement by soluble CD4 . Journal of Virology vol. 66 , ( 6 ) 3531 - 3537 .
Palker TJ, Riggs ER, Spragion DE, Muir AJ, Scearce RM, Randall RR, McAdams MW, McKnight A et al. ( 1992 ) . Mapping of homologous, amino-terminal neutralizing regions of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I and II gp46 envelope glycoproteins . Journal of Virology vol. 66 , ( 10 ) 5879 - 5889 .
Bomford R, Stapleton M, Winsor S, McKnight A, Andronova T ( 1992 ) . The Control of the Antibody Isotype Response to Recombinant Human Immunodeficiency Virus gp120 Antigen by Adjuvants . AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses vol. 8 , ( 10 ) 1765 - 1771 .
McKeating JA, McKnight A, Moore JP ( 1991 ) . Differential loss of envelope glycoprotein gp120 from virions of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 isolates: Effects on infectivity and neutralization . Journal of Virology vol. 65 , ( 2 ) 852 - 860 .
Page M, Mills KHG, Schild GC, Ling C, Patel V, McKnight A, Barnard AL, Dilger P et al. ( 1991 ) . Studies on the immunogenicity of chinese hamster ovary cell-derived recombinant gp120 (HIV-1<inf>IIIB</inf>) . Vaccine vol. 9 , ( 1 ) 47 - 52 .
Durda PJ, Bacheler L, Clapham P, Jenoski AM, Leece B, Matthews TJ, Mcknight A, Pomerantz R et al. ( 1990 ) . HIV-1 Neutralizing Monoclonal Antibodies Induced by a Synthetic Peptide . AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses vol. 6 , ( 9 ) 1115 - 1123 .
Sommerfelt MA, Williams BP, McKnight A, Goodfellow PN, Weiss RA ( 1990 ) . Localization of the receptor gene for type D simian retroviruses on human chromosome 19 . Journal of Virology vol. 64 , ( 12 ) 6214 - 6220 .
McKeating JA, McKnight A, McIntosh K, Clapham PR, Mulder C, Weiss RA ( 1989 ) . Evaluation of human and simian immundeficiency virus plaque and neutralization assays . Journal of General Virology vol. 70 , ( 12 ) 3327 - 3333 .
Weiss RA, Clapham PR, McClure MO, McKeating JA, McKnight A, Dalgleish AG, Sattentau QJ, Weber JN ( 1988 ) . Human immunodeficiency viruses: Neutralization and receptors . Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes vol. 1 , ( 6 ) 536 - 541 .