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Research

Publications: Prof Kate Spencer

Lawrence TJ, Carr SJ, Wheatland JAT, Manning AJ, Spencer KL ( 2022 ) . Quantifying the 3D structure and function of porosity and pore space in natural sediment flocs . Journal of Soils and Sediments vol. 22 , ( 12 ) 3176 - 3188 .
Yan D, Lu X, Zhao S, Zhang Z, Lu M, Feng J, Zhang J, Spencer K et al. ( 2022 ) . Lead Leaching of Perovskite Solar Cells in Aqueous Environments: A Quantitative Investigation . Solar RRL vol. 6 , ( 9 )
Yan D, Lu X, Zhao S, Zhang Z, Lu M, Feng J, Zhang J, Spencer K et al. ( 2022 ) . Lead Leaching of Perovskite Solar Cells in Aqueous Environments: A Quantitative Investigation . Solar RRL vol. 6 , ( 9 )
Spencer KL, Wheatland JA, Carr SJ, Manning AJ, Bushby AJ, Gu C, Botto L, Lawrence T ( 2022 ) . Quantification of 3-dimensional structure and properties of flocculated natural suspended sediment . Water Research vol. 222 ,
Evans BR, Brooks H, Chirol C, Kirkham MK, Möller I, Royse K, Spencer K, Spencer T ( 2021 ) . Vegetation interactions with geotechnical properties and erodibility of salt marsh sediments . Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science107713 - 107713 .
Spencer KL, Wheatland JAT, Bushby AJ, Carr SJ, Droppo IG, Manning AJ ( 2021 ) . A structure–function based approach to floc hierarchy and evidence for the non-fractal nature of natural sediment flocs . Scientific Reports vol. 11 , ( 1 )
Chirol C, Spencer KL, Carr SJ, Möller I, Evans B, Lynch J, Brooks H, Royse KR ( 2021 ) . Effect of vegetation cover and sediment type on 3D subsurface structure and shear strength in saltmarshes . Earth Surface Processes and Landforms
Arnold A, Murphy JF, Pretty JL, Duerdoth CP, Smith BD, Rainbow PS, Spencer KL, Collins AL et al. ( 2021 ) . Accumulation of trace metals in freshwater macroinvertebrates across metal contamination gradients . Environmental Pollution vol. 276 , Article 116721 , 116721 - 116721 .
Chirol C, Carr SJ, Spencer KL, Moeller I ( 2021 ) . Pore, live root and necromass quantification in complex heterogeneous wetland soils using X-ray computed tomography . Geoderma vol. 387 , 114898 - 114898 .
Jones JI, Vdovchenko A, Cooling D, Murphy JF, Arnold A, Pretty JL, Spencer KL, Markus AA et al. ( 2020 ) . Systematic Analysis of the Relative Abundance of Polymers Occurring as Microplastics in Freshwaters and Estuaries . International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health vol. 17 , ( 24 ) 9304 - 9304 .
Bardos P, Spencer KL, Ward RD, Maco BH, Cundy AB ( 2020 ) . Integrated and Sustainable Management of Post-industrial Coasts . Frontiers in Environmental Science vol. 8 ,
Brooks H, Möller I, Carr S, Chirol C, Christie E, Evans B, Spencer KL, Spencer T et al. ( 2020 ) . Resistance of salt marsh substrates to near-instantaneous hydrodynamic forcing . Earth Surface Processes and Landforms
Carr SJ, Diggens LM, Spencer KL ( 2020 ) . There is no such thing as ‘undisturbed’ soil and sediment sampling: sampler-induced deformation of salt marsh sediments revealed by 3D X-ray computed tomography . Journal of Soils and Sediments
Jones J, Murphy JF, Arnold A, Pretty J, Spencer K, Markus AA, Vethaak AD ( 2020 ) . Analysis, Prevalence & Impact of Microplastics in Freshwater and Estuarine Environments Evidence Review 2 What are the sources of the microplastics found in freshwater environments? . Defra ( London ), report no. WT15112.ER2 ,
Jones J, Murphy J, Arnold A, Pretty J, Spencer K, Markus AA, Vethaak AD ( 2020 ) . Evidence Reviews on Analysis, Prevalence & Impact of Microplastics in Freshwater and Estuarine Environments Evidence Review 3 What is/are the impact(s) of microplastics on freshwater and estuarine biota? . Defra ( London ), report no. WT15112.ER3 ,
Jones J, Murphy JF, Arnold A, Pretty J, Spencer K, Markus AA, Vethaak AD ( 2020 ) . Evidence Reviews on Analysis, Prevalence & Impact of Microplastics in Freshwater and Estuarine Environments. Evidence Review 1 Are the current sampling and analytical methods scientifically robust and appropriate? . Defra ( Defra, London ), report no. WT15112.ER1 ,
Wheatland JAT, Spencer KL, Droppo IG, Carr SJ, Bushby AJ ( 2020 ) . Development of novel 2D and 3D correlative microscopy to characterise the composition and multiscale structure of suspended sediment aggregates . Continental Shelf Research Article 104112 , 104112 - 104112 .
Brand JH, Spencer KL ( 2020 ) . Will flooding or erosion of historic landfills result in a significant release of soluble contaminants to the coastal zone? . Science of The Total Environment Article 138150 , 138150 - 138150 .
Nicholls RJ, Beaven R, Stringfellow A, Spencer KL, Tarrant O, Cope S ( 2020 ) . Coastal Landfills, Rising Sea Levels and Shoreline Management: A Challenge for the 21st Century . Conference: Coastal Management 2019391 - 404 .
Spencer K, Wheatland J ( 2020 ) . How do nutrients and pollutants travel from rivers to the sea? .
JONES JI, Spencer K, Rainbow PS, Collins AL, Murphy J, Arnold A, Duerdoth CP, Pretty JL et al. ( 2019 ) . The Ecological Impacts of Contaminated Sediment from Abandoned Metal Mines . Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs ( London, UK ), report no. WT0970 ,
Brand JH, Spencer KL ( 2019 ) . Potential contamination of the coastal zone by eroding historic landfills . Marine Pollution Bulletin vol. 146 , 282 - 291 .
Dale J, Cundy AB, Spencer KL, Carr SJ, Croudace IW, Burgess HM, Nash DJ ( 2019 ) . Sediment structure and physicochemical changes following tidal inundation at a large open coast managed realignment site . SCIENCE OF THE TOTAL ENVIRONMENT vol. 660 , 1419 - 1432 .
Premier V, Machado AADS, Mitchell S, Zarfl C, Spencer K, Toffolon M ( 2019 ) . A Model-Based Analysis of Metal Fate in the Thames Estuary . ESTUARIES AND COASTS vol. 42 , ( 4 ) 1185 - 1201 .
JONES JI, MURPHY JF, Collins AL, SPENCER KL, RAINBOW PS, ARNOLD A, PRETTY J, Moorhouse AML et al. ( 2019 ) . The Impact of Metal-Rich Sediments Derived from Mining on Freshwater Stream Life . Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology vol. 247 , 1 - 79 .
O'Shea FT, Cundy AB, Spencer KL ( 2018 ) . The contaminant legacy from historic coastal landfills and their potential as sources of diffuse pollution . Marine Pollution Bulletin vol. 128 , 446 - 455 .
Brand JH, Spencer KL ( 2018 ) . Risk screening assessment for ranking historic coastal landfills by pollution risk . Anthropocene Coasts vol. 1 , ( 1 ) 44 - 61 .
SPENCER KL, O'SHEA F ( 2017 ) . Unravelling metal mobility under complex contaminant signatures . Science of the Total Environment vol. 622-623 , 373 - 384 .
Brand JH, Spencer KL, O'shea FT, Lindsay JE ( 2017 ) . Potential pollution risks of historic landfills on low-lying coasts and estuaries . WILEY INTERDISCIPLINARY REVIEWS-WATER vol. 5 , ( 1 ) Article ARTN e1264 ,
Little S, Spencer KL, Schuttelaars HM, Millward GE, Elliott M ( 2017 ) . Unbounded boundaries and shifting baselines: Estuaries and coastal seas in a rapidly changing world . ESTUARINE COASTAL AND SHELF SCIENCE vol. 198 , 311 - 319 .
Wheatland JAT, Bushby AJ, Spencer KL ( 2017 ) . Quantifying the Structure and Composition of Flocculated Suspended Particulate Matter Using Focused Ion Beam Nanotomography . Environ Sci Technol vol. 51 , ( 16 ) 8917 - 8925 .
Spencer KL, Carr SJ, Diggens LM, Tempest JA, Morris MA, Harvey GL ( 2017 ) . The impact of pre-restoration land-use and disturbance on sediment structure, hydrology and the sediment geochemical environment in restored saltmarshes . Science of the Total Environment vol. 587-588 , 47 - 58 .
Jian L, Junyi Y, Jingchun L, Chongling Y, Haoliang L, Spencer KL ( 2016 ) . The effects of sulfur amendments on the geochemistry of sulfur, phosphorus and iron in the mangrove plant (Kandelia obovata (S. L.)) rhizosphere . MARINE POLLUTION BULLETIN vol. 114 , ( 2 ) 733 - 741 .
de Souza Machado AA, Spencer K, Kloas W, Toffolon M, Zarfl C ( 2016 ) . Metal fate and effects in estuaries: A review and conceptual model for better understanding of toxicity . Science of the Total Environment vol. 541 , 268 - 281 .
Tempest JA, Harvey GL, Spencer KL ( 2015 ) . Modified sediments and subsurface hydrology in natural and recreated salt marshes and implications for delivery of ecosystem services . Hydrological Processes vol. 29 , ( 10 ) 2346 - 2357 .
Morris MA, Spencer KL, Belyea LR, Branfireun BA ( 2014 ) . Temporal and spatial distributions of sediment mercury in restored coastal saltmarshes . Marine Chemistry vol. 167 , 150 - 159 .
Gibbs HM, Gurnell AM, Heppell CM, Spencer KL ( 2014 ) . The role of vegetation in the retention of fine sediment and associated metal contaminants in London's rivers . EARTH SURFACE PROCESSES AND LANDFORMS vol. 39 , ( 8 ) 1115 - 1127 .
Manning AJ, Spearman JR, Whitehouse RJS, Pidduck EL, Baugh JV, Spencer KL ( 2013 ) . Flocculation Dynamics of Mud: Sand Mixed Suspensions . Sediment Transport Processes and Their Modelling Applications ,
Kadiri M, Spencer KL, Heppell CM ( 2012 ) . Potential contaminant release from agricultural soil and dredged sediment following managed realignment . JOURNAL OF SOILS AND SEDIMENTS vol. 12 , ( 10 ) 1581 - 1592 .
Spencer KL, Harvey GL ( 2012 ) . Understanding system disturbance and ecosystem services in restored saltmarshes: Integrating physical and biogeochemical processes . ESTUARINE COASTAL AND SHELF SCIENCE vol. 106 , 23 - 32 .
Kadiri M, Spencer KL, Heppell CM, Fletcher P ( 2011 ) . Sediment characteristics of a restored saltmarsh and mudflat in a managed realignment scheme in Southeast England . HYDROBIOLOGIA vol. 672 , ( 1 ) 79 - 89 .
Spencer KL, Suzuki K, Hillier S ( 2011 ) . The development of rare earth element-labelled potassium-depleted clays for use as cohesive sediment tracers in aquatic environments . J SOIL SEDIMENT vol. 11 , ( 6 ) 1052 - 1061 .
Spencer KL, Droppo IG, He C, Grapentine L, Exall K ( 2011 ) . A novel tracer technique for the assessment of fine sediment dynamics in urban water management systems . WATER RES vol. 45 , ( 8 ) 2595 - 2606 .
Reid MK, Spencer KL, Shotbolt L ( 2011 ) . An appraisal of microwave-assisted Tessier and BCR sequential extraction methods for the analysis of metals in sediments and soils . J SOIL SEDIMENT vol. 11 , ( 3 ) 518 - 528 .
Spencer KL, Manning AJ, Droppo IG, Leppard GG, Benson T ( 2010 ) . Dynamic interactions between cohesive sediment tracers and natural mud . J SOIL SEDIMENT vol. 10 , ( 7 ) 1401 - 1414 .
Liu JC, Yan CL, Spencer KL, Zhang RF, Lu HL ( 2010 ) . The distribution of acid-volatile sulfide and simultaneously extracted metals in sediments from a mangrove forest and adjacent mudflat in Zhangjiang Estuary, China . MAR POLLUT BULL vol. 60 , ( 8 ) 1209 - 1216 .
Reid MK, Spencer KL ( 2009 ) . Use of principal components analysis (PCA) on estuarine sediment datasets: The effect of data pre-treatment . ENVIRON POLLUT vol. 157 , ( 8-9 ) 2275 - 2281 .
Spencer KL, Cundy AB, Davies-Hearn S, Hughes R, Turner S, MacLeod CL ( 2008 ) . Physicochemical changes in sediments at Orplands Farm, Essex, UK following 8 years of managed realignment . ESTUAR COAST SHELF S vol. 76 , ( 3 ) 608 - 619 .
Cundy AB, Lafite R, Taylor JA, Hopkinson L, Deloffre J, Charman R, Gilpin M, Spencer KL et al. ( 2007 ) . Sediment transfer and accumulation in two contrasting salt marsh/mudflat systems: the Seine estuary (France) and the Medway estuary (UK) . HYDROBIOLOGIA vol. 588 , 125 - 134 .
Spencer KL, Suzuki K, Benson T, Taylor JA, Manning A, Dearnaley M ( 2007 ) . Sediment dynamics and pollutant mobility in rivers . Sediment dynamics and pollutant mobility in rivers , Editors: Westrich, B, Förstner, U , Springer Verlag ( Heidelberg, New York ),
SPENCER K, Taylor JA, Kearton-Gee T, James SL ( 2007 ) . Sorption of lanthanum onto clay minerals: a potential tracer for fine sediment transport in the coastal marine environment? . Geological Society Special Publication vol. 274 , 17 - 24 .
Spencer KL, Dewhurst RE, Penna P ( 2006 ) . Potential impacts of water injection dredging on water qualit and ecotoxicity in Limehouse Basin, River Thames, SE England, UK . CHEMOSPHERE vol. 63 , ( 3 ) 509 - 521 .
Spencer KL, MacLeod CL, Tuckett A, Johnson SM ( 2006 ) . Source and distribution of trace metals in the Medway and Swale estuaries, Kent, UK . MAR POLLUT BULL vol. 52 , ( 2 ) 226 - 231 .
Cundy AB, Hopkinson L, Lafite R, Spencer K, Taylor JA, Ouddane B, Heppell CM, Carey PJ et al. ( 2005 ) . Heavy metal distribution and accumulation in two Spartina sp.-dominated macrotidal salt marshes from the Seine estuary (France) and the Medway estuary (UK) . APPL GEOCHEM vol. 20 , ( 6 ) 1195 - 1208 .
Spencer KL, Cundy AB, Croudace IW ( 2003 ) . Heavy metal distribution and early-diagenesis in salt marsh sediments from the Medway Estuary, Kent, UK . ESTUAR COAST SHELF S vol. 57 , ( 1-2 ) 43 - 54 .
Spencer KL, MacLeod CL ( 2002 ) . Distribution and partitioning of heavy metals in estuarine sediment cores and implications for the use of sediment quality standards . HYDROLOGY AND EARTH SYSTEM SCIENCES . vol. 6 , 989 - 998 .
Spencer KL ( 2002 ) . Spatial variability of metals in the inter-tidal sediments of the Medway Estuary, Kent, UK . MAR POLLUT BULL vol. 44 , ( 9 ) 933 - 944 .
SPENCER K, MacLeod C ( 2002 ) . Partitioning of heavy metals in estuarine sediment cores and implications for use of sediment quality standards . Hydrology and Earth Systems Science 6. vol. 6 , ( 6 ) 989 - 998 .