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Research

Publications: Prof Vardhman Rakyan

Rodriguez-Algarra F, Seaborne RAE, Danson AF, Yildizoglu S, Yoshikawa H, Law PP, Ahmad Z, Maudsley VA et al. ( 2022 ) . Genetic variation at mouse and human ribosomal DNA influences associated epigenetic states . Genome Biology vol. 23 , ( 1 )
Ogunkolade BW, Adaikalakoteswari A, Cardoso SR, Lowe R, Patel N, Rakyan V, Finer S, Wabitsch M et al. ( 2022 ) . An integrative epi-transcriptomic approach identifies the human cartilage chitinase 3-like protein 2 (CHI3L2) as a potential mediator of B12 deficiency in adipocytes . Epigenetics
Marino S ( 2021 ) . Comparative epigenetic analysis of tumour initiating cells and syngeneic EPSC‚Äźderived neural stem cells in glioblastoma . Nature Communications
Åsenius F, Gorrie-Stone TJ, Brew A, Panchbhaya Y, Williamson E, Schalkwyk LC, Rakyan VK, Holland ML et al. ( 2020 ) . The DNA methylome of human sperm is distinct from blood with little evidence for tissue-consistent obesity associations . PLoS Genetics vol. 16 , ( 10 )
Asenius F, Marzi SJ, Gorrie-Stone TJ, Brew A, Panchbaya Y, Williamson E, Schalkwyk L, Rakyan V et al. ( 2020 ) . A lack of DNA methylation covariation between human blood and sperm make it unlikely to mediate intergenerational inheritance of acquired traits . HUMAN REPRODUCTION . vol. 35 , 112 - 112 .
Lowe R, Danson AF, Rakyan VK, Yildizoglu S, Saldmann F, Viltard M, Friedlander G, Faulkes CG ( 2020 ) . DNA methylation clocks as a predictor for ageing and age estimation in naked mole-rats, Heterocephalus glaber . Aging vol. 12 ,
Bell C, Lowe R, Adams P, Baccarelli A, Beck S, Bell J, Christensen B, Gladyshev V et al. ( 2019 ) . DNA methylation aging clocks: challenges and recommendations . Genome Biology Article 249 (2019) ,
Payne A, Holmes N, Rakyan V, Loose M ( 2019 ) . Bulkvis: A graphical viewer for Oxford nanopore bulk FAST5 files . Bioinformatics vol. 35 , ( 13 ) 2193 - 2198 .
DANSON AF, MARZI SJ, LOWE R, HOLLAND ML, RAKYAN V ( 2018 ) . Early life diet conditions the molecular response to post-weaning protein restriction in the mouse . BMC Biology vol. 16 , ( 51 )
Herceg Z, Ghantous A, Wild CP, Sklias A, Casati L, Duthie SJ, Fry R, Issa JP et al. ( 2018 ) . Roadmap for investigating epigenome deregulation and environmental origins of cancer . International Journal of Cancer vol. 142 , ( 5 ) 874 - 882 .
LOWE R, BARTON C, Jenkins C, Ernst C, Forman O, Fernandez-Twinn D, Bock C, ROSSITER S et al. ( 2018 ) . Ageing-associated DNA methylation dynamics are a molecular readout of lifespan variation amongst mammalian species . Genome Biology vol. 19 , Article 22 ,
Thurner M, van de Bunt M, Torres JM, Mahajan A, Nylander V, Bennett AJ, Gaulton KJ, Barrett A et al. ( 2018 ) . Integration of human pancreatic islet genomic data refines regulatory mechanisms at type 2 diabetes susceptibility loci . eLife vol. 7 ,
Brugha R, Lowe R, Henderson AJ, Holloway JW, Rakyan V, Wozniak E, Mahmud N, Seymour K et al. ( 2017 ) . DNA methylation profiles between airway epithelium and proxy tissues in children . Acta Paediatrica
Finer S, Lowe R, Ogunkolade W, Bhowmik B, Hussain A, Khan AKA, Rakyan V, Hitman GA ( 2017 ) . The influence of maternal and offspring environment on genome-wide methylation of the offspring in Bangladesh . Manchester Central, Manchester , from: 08/03/2017 to: 10/03/2017 , vol. 34 , pp. 20 - 21 . Abstract: java.sql.Clob org.hibernate.engine.jdbc.WrappedClob java.io.Serializable ,
Paul DS, Teschendorff AE, Dang MAN, Lowe R, Hawa MI, Ecker S, Beyan H, Cunningham S et al. ( 2016 ) . Increased DNA methylation variability in type 1 diabetes across three immune effector cell types . Nat Commun vol. 7 , 13555 - 13555 .
Stunnenberg HG, Abrignani S, Adams D, de Almeida M, Altucci L, Amin V, Amit I, Antonarakis SE et al. ( 2016 ) . The International Human Epigenome Consortium: A Blueprint for Scientific Collaboration and Discovery . Cell vol. 167 , ( 5 ) 1145 - 1149 .
Breeze CE, Paul DS, van Dongen J, Butcher LM, Ambrose JC, Barrett JE, Lowe R, Rakyan VK et al. ( 2016 ) . eFORGE: A Tool for Identifying Cell Type-Specific Signal in Epigenomic Data . Cell Reports vol. 17 , ( 8 ) 2137 - 2150 .
Yang Z, Wong A, Kuh D, Paul DS, Rakyan VK, Leslie RD, Zheng SC, Widschwendter M et al. ( 2016 ) . Correlation of an epigenetic mitotic clock with cancer risk . Genome Biology vol. 17 , ( 1 )
Holland ML, Lowe R, Caton P, Gemma C, Carbajosa G, DANSON AF, Loche E, Carpenter AAM et al. ( 2016 ) . Early-life nutrition modulates the epigenetic state of specific rDNA genetic variants in mice . Science
Kraiczy J, Nayak K, Ross A, Raine T, Mak TN, Gasparetto M, Cario E, Rakyan V et al. ( 2016 ) . Assessing DNA methylation in the developing human intestinal epithelium: Potential link to inflammatory bowel disease . Mucosal Immunology vol. 9 , ( 3 ) 647 - 658 .
Paul DS, Jones A, Sellar RS, Mayor NP, Feber A, Webster AP, Afonso N, Sergeant R et al. ( 2015 ) . A donor-specific epigenetic classifier for acute graft-versus-host disease severity in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation . Genome Medicine vol. 7 , ( 1 )
Lowe R, Overhoff MG, Ramagopalan SV, Garbe JC, Koh J, Stampfer MR, Beach DH, Rakyan VK et al. ( 2015 ) . The senescent methylome and its relationship with cancer, ageing and germline genetic variation in humans . Genome Biology vol. 16 , ( 1 )
Lowe R, Gemma C, Rakyan VK, Holland ML ( 2015 ) . Sexually dimorphic gene expression emerges with embryonic genome activation and is dynamic throughout development . BMC Genomics vol. 16 , ( 1 )
Lowe R, Slodkowicz G, Goldman N, Rakyan VK ( 2015 ) . The human blood DNA methylome displays a highly distinctive profile compared with other somatic tissues . Epigenetics vol. 10 , ( 4 ) 274 - 281 .
Hillman SL, Finer S, Smart MC, Mathews C, Lowe R, Rakyan VK, Hitman GA, Williams DJ ( 2015 ) . Novel DNA methylation profiles associated with key gene regulation and transcription pathways in blood and placenta of growth-restricted neonates . Epigenetics vol. 10 , ( 1 ) 50 - 61 .
Finer S, Mathews C, Lowe R, Smart M, Hillman S, Foo L, Sinha A, Williams D et al. ( 2015 ) . Maternal gestational diabetes is associated with genome-wide DNA methylation variation in placenta and cord blood of exposed offspring . Human molecular genetics vol. 24 , ( 11 ) 3021 - 3029 .
Finer S, Iqbal S, Ogunkolade WB, Mathews C, Lowe R, Smart M, Rakyan VK, Alam DS et al. ( 2014 ) . Variation in phenotype and DNA methylation is detectable in an observational cohort of young adult Bangladeshis exposed to famine during in utero and postnatal life . DIABETOLOGIA vol. 57 , S105 - S106 .
Mladkova N, Rakyan V, Proby C, Harwood C ( 2014 ) . Genome-wide methylation profiling of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma reveals novel epigenetically regulated genes and pathways . JOURNAL OF INVESTIGATIVE DERMATOLOGY . vol. 134 , S6 - S6 .
Finer S, Mathews C, Smart M, Hillman S, Foo L, Lowe R, Rakyan V, Hitman G ( 2014 ) . Maternal Gestational Diabetes Is Associated with Genome-Wide Methylation Variation in Placenta and Cord Blood of Exposed Offspring . DIABETES . vol. 63 , A56 - A56 .
Lowe R, Rakyan VK ( 2014 ) . Correcting for cell-type composition bias in epigenome-wide association studies . Genome Medicine vol. 6 , ( 3 )
Hillman SL, Finer S, Smart MC, Rakyan V, Hitman GA, Williams DJ ( 2014 ) . Identification of Novel DNA Methylation Profiles Associated with Gene Regulation and Metabolic Pathways in Growth Restricted Offspring . REPRODUCTIVE SCIENCES vol. 21 , ( 3 ) 166A - 166A .
Lowe R, Rakyan VK ( 2013 ) . Marmal-aid--a database for Infinium HumanMethylation450 . BMC Bioinformatics vol. 14 ,
Ke X, Cortina-Borja M, Silva BC, Lowe R, Rakyan V, Balding D ( 2013 ) . Integrated analysis of genome-wide genetic and epigenetic association data for identification of disease mechanisms . Epigenetics vol. 8 , ( 11 ) 1236 - 1244 .
Brugha R, Lowe R, Henderson J, Holloway J, Rakyan V, Shaheen S ( 2013 ) . Comparison of DNA methylation profiles between airway epithelium and proxy tissues . EUROPEAN RESPIRATORY JOURNAL vol. 42 ,
Ramagopalan SV, Rakyan VK ( 2013 ) . The promise and challenges of blood spot methylomics . Epigenetics vol. 8 , ( 8 ) 775 - 777 .
Bazeos A, Lowe R, Nteliopoulos G, Foroni L, Gerrard G, Goldman J, de Lavallade H, Rakyan V et al. ( 2013 ) . THE CML EPIGENOME SHOWS DYNAMIC CHANGES IN THE CD34+COMPARTMENT IN PATIENTS WHO ACHIEVE COMPLETE CYTOGENETIC RESPONSE ON TYROSINE KINASE INHIBITORS . HAEMATOLOGICA . vol. 98 , 255 - 255 .
Holland ML, Rakyan VK ( 2013 ) . Transgenerational inheritance of non-genetically determined phenotypes . Biochemical Society Transactions . vol. 41 , 769 - 776 .
Holland ML, Rakyan VK ( 2013 ) . Transgenerational inheritance of non-genetically determined phenotypes . Biochem Soc Trans vol. 41 , ( 3 ) 769 - 776 .
Gemma C, Ramagopalan SV, Down TA, Beyan H, Hawa MI, Holland ML, Hurd PJ, Giovannoni G et al. ( 2013 ) . Inactive or moderately active human promoters are enriched for inter-individual epialleles . Genome Biol vol. 14 , ( 5 )
Haesler R, Feng Z, Bäckdahl L, Spehlmann ME, Franke A, Teschendorff A, Rakyan V, Down TA et al. ( 2013 ) . 1032 Host-Environment Interactions Shape the Risk for Ulcerative Colitis: Results From a Twin Epigenome-Wide Association Study . Gastroenterology vol. 144 , ( 5 ) s - 193 .
Haesler R, Feng Z, Baeckdahl L, Spehlmann ME, Franke A, Teschendorff A, Rakyan V, Down TA et al. ( 2013 ) . Host-Environment Interactions Shape the Risk for Ulcerative Colitis: Results From a Twin Epigenome-Wide Association Study . GASTROENTEROLOGY . vol. 144 , S193 - S193 .
Lowe R, Gemma C, Beyan H, Hawa MI, Bazeos A, Leslie RD, Montpetit A, Rakyan VK et al. ( 2013 ) . Buccals are likely to be a more informative surrogate tissue than blood for epigenome-wide association studies . Epigenetics : official journal of the DNA Methylation Society vol. 8 , ( 4 ) 445 - 454 .
Lowe R, Gemma C, Beyan H, Hawa MI, Bazeos A, Leslie RD, Montpetit A, Rakyan VK et al. ( 2013 ) . Buccals are likely to be a more informative surrogate tissue than blood for epigenome-wide association studies . Epigenetics vol. 8 , ( 4 ) 445 - 454 .
Rakyan V ( 2013 ) . A mouse model of non-genetic inter-generational effects . Endocrine Abstracts1 - 1 .
Saadeh H, Smallwood S, Proudhon C, Duffie R, Carbajosa G, Holland M, Rakyan V, Bourc'his D et al. ( 2012 ) . A search for sequence-specific signals in maternally imprinted CGIs . GENETICS RESEARCH . vol. 94 , 355 - 355 .
Häsler R, Feng Z, Bäckdahl L, Spehlmann ME, Franke A, Teschendorff A, Rakyan VK, Down TA et al. ( 2012 ) . A functional methylome map of ulcerative colitis . Genome Res vol. 22 , ( 11 ) 2130 - 2137 .
Beyan H, Down TA, Ramagopalan SV, Uvebrant K, Nilsson A, Holland ML, Gemma C, Giovannoni G et al. ( 2012 ) . Guthrie card methylomics identifies temporally stable epialleles that are present at birth in humans . Genome Res vol. 22 , ( 11 ) 2138 - 2145 .
Rakyan V ( 2012 ) . The hunt for mammalian epialleles . BMC Proceedings vol. 6 , ( Suppl 6 )
Proudhon C, Duffié R, Ajjan S, Cowley M, Iranzo J, Carbajosa G, Saadeh H, Holland ML et al. ( 2012 ) . Protection against de novo methylation is instrumental in maintaining parent-of-origin methylation inherited from the gametes . Mol Cell vol. 47 , ( 6 ) 909 - 920 .
Bazeos A, Lowe R, Apperley J, Marin D, Nteliopoulos G, de Lavallade H, Rezvani K, Bray E et al. ( 2012 ) . A DNA METHYLATION CLASSIFIER PREDICTS RESPONSE TO IMATINIB IN PRE-TREATMENT CML SAMPLES . HAEMATOLOGICA . vol. 97 , 65 - 65 .
Mladkova N, McHugh A, Rakyan V, Proby C, Harwood C ( 2012 ) . Methylation profiling of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma reveals an embryonic stem cell signature among differentially methylated genes . BRITISH JOURNAL OF DERMATOLOGY . vol. 166 , e23 - e23 .
Adams D, Altucci L, Antonarakis SE, Ballesteros J, Beck S, Bird A, Bock C, Boehm B et al. ( 2012 ) . BLUEPRINT to decode the epigenetic signature written in blood . NATURE BIOTECHNOLOGY vol. 30 , ( 3 ) 224 - 226 .
GREENE NDE, COPP AJ, WARD A, LAKOWSKI J, HAN YT, PEARSON RA, GONZALEZ-CORDERO A, WEST EL et al. ( 2012 ) . Abstracts of papers presented at the 22nd Genetics Society's Mammalian Genetics and Development Workshop held at the Institute of Child Health, University College London on 17 November 2011 . Genetics Research vol. 94 , ( 1 ) 49 - 55 .
Saied MH, Marzec J, Khalid S, Smith P, Down TA, Rakyan VK, Molloy G, Raghavan M et al. ( 2012 ) . Genome wide analysis of acute myeloid leukemia reveal leukemia specific methylome and subtype specific hypomethylation of repeats . PLoS One vol. 7 , ( 3 )
Nanty L, Carbajosa G, Heap GA, Ratnieks F, van Heel DA, Down TA, Rakyan VK ( 2011 ) . Comparative methylomics reveals gene-body H3K36me3 in Drosophila predicts DNA methylation and CpG landscapes in other invertebrates . Genome Res vol. 21 , ( 11 ) 1841 - 1850 .
Mladkova N, McHugh A, Down T, Rakyan V, Proby C, Harwood C ( 2011 ) . Identification of Differentially Methylated Genes in Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma from Epidermolysis Bullosa Patients and Normal Population . JOURNAL OF INVESTIGATIVE DERMATOLOGY . vol. 131 , S24 - S24 .
Rakyan VK, Beyan H, Down TA, Hawa MI, Maslau S, Aden D, Daunay A, Busato F et al. ( 2011 ) . Identification of type 1 diabetes-associated DNA methylation variable positions that precede disease diagnosis . PLoS Genet vol. 7 , ( 9 )
Rakyan VK, Down TA, Balding DJ, Beck S ( 2011 ) . Epigenome-wide association studies for common human diseases . Nat Rev Genet vol. 12 , ( 8 ) 529 - 541 .
Mladkova N, McHugh A, Down T, Rakyan V, South A, Proby C, Harwood C ( 2011 ) . Methylation profiling of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma . BRITISH JOURNAL OF DERMATOLOGY . vol. 164 , 932 - 933 .
Feber A, Wilson GA, Zhang L, Presneau N, Idowu B, Down TA, Rakyan VK, Noon LA et al. ( 2011 ) . Comparative methylome analysis of benign and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors . GENOME RESEARCH vol. 21 , ( 4 ) 515 - 524 .
Finer S, Holland ML, Nanty L, Rakyan VK ( 2011 ) . The hunt for the epiallele . Environ Mol Mutagen vol. 52 , ( 1 ) 1 - 11 .
Beyan H, Rakyan VK, Down TA, Hawa MI, Maslau S, Wallace C, Aden D, Mein CA et al. ( 2010 ) . Identification of type 1 diabetes-associated methylation variable positions that precede disease diagnosis . DIABETOLOGIA . vol. 53 , S145 - S146 .
Bell CG, Teschendorff AE, Rakyan VK, Maxwell AP, Beck S, Savage DA ( 2010 ) . Genome-wide DNA methylation analysis for diabetic nephropathy in type 1 diabetes mellitus . BMC Med Genomics vol. 3 ,
Beyan H, Rakyan VK, Down TA, Maslau S, Hawa MI, Boehm BO, Beck S, Leslie RD ( 2010 ) . Whole-Genome Identification and Functional Analysis of Type 1 Diabetes-Associated Epigenetic Variation . DIABETES . vol. 59 , A56 - A56 .
Rakyan VK, Down TA, Maslau S, Andrew T, Yang T-P, Beyan H, Whittaker P, McCann OT et al. ( 2010 ) . Human aging-associated DNA hypermethylation occurs preferentially at bivalent chromatin domains . Genome Res vol. 20 , ( 4 ) 434 - 439 .
Novakovic B, Wong NC, Sibson M, Ng H-K, Morley R, Manuelpillai U, Down T, Rakyan VK et al. ( 2010 ) . DNA methylation-mediated down-regulation of DNA methyltransferase-1 (DNMT1) is coincident with, but not essential for, global hypomethylation in human placenta . J Biol Chem vol. 285 , ( 13 ) 9583 - 9593 .
Finer S, Holland M, Rakyan V, Hitman G ( 2010 ) . A model of intrauterine hyperglycaemia provides evidence for fetal programming of glucose tolerance and a platform for epigenomic studies in mouse and human . Longitudinal and Life Course Studies: international journal . Conference: The 5th Conference on Epidemiology and Longitudonal Studies in Europe ( Paphos, Cyprus ) from: 13/10/2010 to: 15/10/2010 , vol. 1 ,
Bell CG, Finer S, Lindgren CM, Wilson GA, Rakyan VK, Teschendoff AE, Akan P, Stupka E et al. ( 2010 ) . Integrated Genetic and Epigenetic Analysis Identifies Haplotype-Specific Methylation in the FTO Type 2 Diabetes and Obesity Susceptibility Locus . PLOS One
Rakyan VK ( 2009 ) . The Hunt for Epialleles . ENVIRONMENTAL AND MOLECULAR MUTAGENESIS . vol. 50 , 543 - 543 .
Novakovic B, Sibson M, Ng HK, Manuelpillai U, Rakyan V, Down T, Beck S, Fournier T et al. ( 2009 ) . Placenta-specific methylation of the vitamin D 24-hydroxylase gene: implications for feedback autoregulation of active vitamin D levels at the fetomaternal interface . J Biol Chem vol. 284 , ( 22 ) 14838 - 14848 .
Papageorgiou EA, Fiegler H, Rakyan V, Beck S, Hulten M, Lamnissou K, Carter NP, Patsalis PC ( 2009 ) . Sites of differential DNA methylation between placenta and peripheral blood: molecular markers for noninvasive prenatal diagnosis of aneuploidies . Am J Pathol vol. 174 , ( 5 ) 1609 - 1618 .
Thorne N, Marioni J, Rakyan V, Ibrahim A, Massie C, Curtis C, Brenton J, Murrell A et al. ( 2009 ) . DNA Methylation Arrays . Microarray Innovations , vol. 20090856 ,
Ottaviani D, Lever E, Mitter R, Jones T, Forshew T, Christova R, Tomazou EM, Rakyan VK et al. ( 2008 ) . Reconfiguration of genomic anchors upon transcriptional activation of the human major histocompatibility complex . Genome Res vol. 18 , ( 11 ) 1778 - 1786 .
Rakyan VK, Down TA, Thorne NP, Flicek P, Kulesha E, Gräf S, Tomazou EM, Bäckdahl L et al. ( 2008 ) . An integrated resource for genome-wide identification and analysis of human tissue-specific differentially methylated regions (tDMRs) . Genome Res vol. 18 , ( 9 ) 1518 - 1529 .
Novakovic B, Rakyan V, Ng HK, Manuelpillai U, Dewi C, Wong NC, Morley R, Down T et al. ( 2008 ) . Specific tumour-associated methylation in normal human term placenta and first-trimester cytotrophoblasts . Mol Hum Reprod vol. 14 , ( 9 ) 547 - 554 .
Down TA, Rakyan VK, Turner DJ, Flicek P, Li H, Kulesha E, Gräf S, Johnson N et al. ( 2008 ) . A Bayesian deconvolution strategy for immunoprecipitation-based DNA methylome analysis . Nat Biotechnol vol. 26 , ( 7 ) 779 - 785 .
Tomazou EM, Rakyan VK, Lefebvre G, Andrews R, Ellis P, Jackson DK, Langford C, Francis MD et al. ( 2008 ) . Generation of a genomic tiling array of the human Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) and its application for DNA methylation analysis . BMC Med Genomics vol. 1 , ( 1 )
Beck S, Rakyan VK ( 2008 ) . The methylome: approaches for global DNA methylation profiling . TRENDS IN GENETICS vol. 24 , ( 5 ) 231 - 237 .
Juran BD, Lazaridis KN ( 2007 ) . Applying genomics to the study of complex disease . Semin Liver Dis vol. 27 , ( 1 ) 3 - 12 .
Eckhardt F, Lewin J, Cortese R, Rakyan VK, Attwood J, Burger M, Burton J, Cox TV et al. ( 2006 ) . DNA methylation profiling of human chromosomes 6, 20 and 22 . Nat Genet vol. 38 , ( 12 ) 1378 - 1385 .
Rakyan VK, Beck S ( 2006 ) . Epigenetic variation and inheritance in mammals . Curr Opin Genet Dev vol. 16 , ( 6 ) 573 - 577 .
Murrell A, Rakyan VK, Beck S ( 2005 ) . From genome to epigenome . Hum Mol Genet vol. 14 Spec No 1 , R3 - R10 .
RAKYAN V, Novik KL, Hildmann T, Lewin J ( 2004 ) . DNA Methylation Profiling of the Human Major Histocompatibility Complex: A Pilot Study for the Human Epigenome Project . PLoS Biol vol. 2 , ( 12 ) e405 - e405 .
Rakyan VK, Chong S, Champ ME, Cuthbert PC, Morgan HD, Luu KVK, Whitelaw E ( 2003 ) . Transgenerational inheritance of epigenetic states at the murine Axin(Fu) allele occurs after maternal and paternal transmission . Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A vol. 100 , ( 5 ) 2538 - 2543 .
Rakyan V, Whitelaw E ( 2003 ) . Transgenerational epigenetic inheritance . Curr Biol vol. 13 , ( 1 )
Rakyan VK, Blewitt ME, Druker R, Preis JI, Whitelaw E ( 2002 ) . Metastable epialleles in mammals . Trends Genet vol. 18 , ( 7 ) 348 - 351 .
Rakyan VK, Preis J, Morgan HD, Whitelaw E ( 2001 ) . The marks, mechanisms and memory of epigenetic states in mammals . Biochem J vol. 356 , ( Pt 1 ) 1 - 10 .
RAKYAN VK, PREIS J, MORGAN HD, WHITELAW E ( 2001 ) . The marks, mechanisms and memory of epigenetic states in mammals . Biochemical Journal vol. 356 , ( 1 ) 1 - 10 .
Morgan H, Preis J, Rakyan V, Whitelaw E ( 2001 ) . Inheritance: Not only DNA . Today's Life Science vol. 13 , ( 1 ) 32 - 36 .
Van Der Weyden L, Rakyan V, Luttrell BM, Morris MB, Conigrave AD ( 2000 ) . Extracellular ATP couples to cAMP generation and granulocytic differentiation in human NB4 promyelocytic leukaemia cells . Immunology and Cell Biology vol. 78 , ( 5 ) 467 - 473 .