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Research

Publications: Prof Frances Balkwill

Mulvey KL, McGuire L, Hoffman AJ, Hartstone-Rose A, Winterbottom M, Balkwill F, Fields GE, Burns K et al. ( 2020 ) . Learning hand in hand: Engaging in research-practice partnerships to advance developmental science . New Dir Child Adolesc Dev vol. 2020 , ( 172 ) 125 - 134 .
Whitehouse AL, Mushtaq N, Miyashita L, Barratt B, Khan A, Kalsi H, Koh L, Padovan MG et al. ( 2020 ) . Airway dendritic cell maturation in children exposed to air pollution . PLoS One vol. 15 , ( 5 ) e0232040 - e0232040 .
Montfort A, Owen S, Piskorz AM, Supernat A, Moore L, Al-Khalidi S, Böhm S, Pharoah P et al. ( 2020 ) . Combining measures of immune infiltration shows additive effect on survival prediction in high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma . British Journal of Cancer
Demircioglu F, Wang J, Candido J, Costa ASH, Casado P, de Luxan Delgado B, Reynolds LE, Gomez-Escudero J et al. ( 2020 ) . Cancer associated fibroblast FAK regulates malignant cell metabolism . Nature Communications vol. 11 , ( 1 ) 1290 - 1290 .
Maniati E, Berlato C, Gopinathan G, Heath O, Kotantaki P, Lakhani A, McDermott J, Pegrum C et al. ( 2020 ) . Mouse Ovarian Cancer Models Recapitulate the Human Tumor Microenvironment and Patient Response to Treatment . SSRN Electronic Journal
Marques P, Barry S, Carlsen E, Collier D, Ronaldson A, Awad S, Dorward N, Grieve J et al. ( 2019 ) . Chemokines modulate the tumour microenvironment in pituitary neuroendocrine tumours . Acta neuropathologica communications vol. 7 , ( 1 )
Bast RC, Matulonis UA, Sood AK, Ahmed AA, Amobi AE, Balkwill FR, Wielgos-Bonvallet M, Bowtell DDL et al. ( 2019 ) . Critical questions in ovarian cancer research and treatment: Report of an American Association for Cancer Research Special Conference . Cancer vol. 125 , ( 12 ) 1963 - 1972 .
Spear S, Candido JB, McDermott JR, Ghirelli C, Maniati E, Beers SA, Balkwill FR, Kocher HM et al. ( 2019 ) . Discrepancies in the tumor microenvironment of spontaneous and orthotopic murine models of pancreatic cancer uncover a new immunostimulatory phenotype for B cells . Frontiers in Immunology vol. 10 , ( MAR )
Marques P, Barry S, Carlsen E, Collier D, Ronaldson A, Awad S, Dorward N, Grieve J et al. ( 2019 ) . Pituitary tumour fibroblast-derived cytokines influence tumour aggressiveness . Endocrine-Related Cancer vol. 26 , ( 12 ) 853 - 865 .
Naba A, Pearce OMT, Del Rosario A, Ma D, Ding H, Rajeeve V, Cutillas PR, Balkwill FR et al. ( 2018 ) . Characterization of the Extracellular Matrix of Normal and Diseased Tissues Using Proteomics . Journal of Proteome Research vol. 16 , ( 8 ) 3083 - 3091 .
Sanz-Moreno V, Balkwill FR ( 2018 ) . Mets and NETs: The Awakening Force . Immunity vol. 49 , ( 5 ) 798 - 800 .
Candido JB, Morton JP, Bailey P, Campbell AD, Karim SA, Jamieson T, Lapienyte L, Gopinathan A et al. ( 2018 ) . CSF1R<sup>+</sup> Macrophages Sustain Pancreatic Tumor Growth through T Cell Suppression and Maintenance of Key Gene Programs that Define the Squamous Subtype . Cell Reports vol. 23 , ( 5 ) 1448 - 1460 .
Malik STA, Balkwill FR ( 2018 ) . Cytokines . The Nude Mouse in Oncology Research ,
Pearce OMT, Delaine-Smith R, Maniati E, Nichols S, Wang J, Böhm S, Rajeeve V, Ullah D et al. ( 2017 ) . Deconstruction of a metastatic tumor microenvironment reveals a common matrix response in human cancers . Cancer Discov
McDermott JR, Jones R, Lockley M, Balkwill FR ( 2017 ) . The Chemokine CXCL10 is a Potential Regulator of Cancer Stem Cells in High Grade Serous Carcinoma . JOURNAL OF PATHOLOGY . vol. 243 , S15 - S15 .
Netea MG, Balkwill F, Chonchol M, Cominelli F, Donath MY, Giamarellos-Bourboulis EJ, Golenbock D, Gresnigt MS et al. ( 2017 ) . A guiding map for inflammation . Nat Immunol vol. 18 , ( 8 ) 826 - 831 .
McCarthy FM, Candido J, Rudd R, Steele JPC, Balkwill F ( 2017 ) . Upregulation of amphiregulin on CD14++CD16- (classical) monocytes in non-small cell lung cancer . Journal of Clinical Oncology . vol. 35 , e14612 - e14612 .
BALKWILL F, Berlato C, Khan MN, Schioppa T, Thompson R, Maniati E, Montfort A, Jangani M et al. ( 2017 ) . A CCR4 antagonist reverses the tumor-promoting microenvironment of renal cancer . Journal of Clinical Investigation
Walton J, Blagih J, Ennis D, Leung E, Dowson S, Farquharson M, Tookman LA, Orange C et al. ( 2016 ) . CRISPR/Cas9-mediated Trp53 and Brca2 knockout to generate improved murine models of ovarian high grade serous carcinoma . Cancer Research
Delaine-Smith RM, Burney S, Balkwill FR, Knight MM ( 2016 ) . Experimental validation of a flat punch indentation methodology calibrated against unconfined compression tests for determination of soft tissue biomechanics . Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials vol. 60 , 401 - 415 .
Montfort A, Pearce OMT, Maniati E, Vincent B, Bixby LM, Bo hm S, Dowe T, Wilkes EH et al. ( 2016 ) . A strong B cell response is part of the immune landscape in human high-grade serous ovarian metastases . Clinical Cancer Research
Steele CW, Karim SA, Leach JDG, Bailey P, Upstill-Goddard R, Rishi L, Foth M, Bryson S et al. ( 2016 ) . CXCR2 Inhibition Profoundly Suppresses Metastases and Augments Immunotherapy in Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma . Cancer Cell vol. 29 , ( 6 ) 832 - 845 .
GROSE RP, Dawkins JBN, Wang J, maniati, heward, koniali, kocher, martin et al. ( 2016 ) . Reduced expression of histone methyltransferases KMT2C and KMT2D correlates with improved outcome in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma . Cancer Research
BALKWILL F, Anne Montfort, Oliver Pearce ( 2016 ) . Neoadjuvant chemotherapy modulates the immune microenvironment in metastases of tubo-ovarian high-grade serous carcinoma . Clinical Cancer Research
Kulbe H, Iorio F, Chakravarty P, Milagre CS, Moore R, Thompson RG, Everitt G, Canosa M et al. ( 2016 ) . Integrated transcriptomic and proteomic analysis identifies protein kinase CK2 as a key signaling node in an inflammatory cytokine network in ovarian cancer cells . Oncotarget vol. 7 , ( 13 ) 15648 - 15661 .
Walton J, Dowson S, Ennis D, Leung E, Farquharson M, Stevenson D, Blyth K, Strathdee D et al. ( 2016 ) . Abstract B53: CRISPR/Cas9 mediated p53 and BRCA2 knockout to generate improved murine models of high grade serous ovarian cancer . b53 - b53 .
Tamura N, Shaikh N, McGuinness JR, Bowtell D, Balkwill F, Petermann E, McClelland SE ( 2016 ) . What drives chromosomal instability in high-grade serous ovarian cancer? . MOLECULAR BIOLOGY OF THE CELL . vol. 27 ,
Crusz SM, Balkwill FR ( 2015 ) . Inflammation and cancer: Advances and new agents . Nature Reviews Clinical Oncology vol. 12 , ( 10 ) 584 - 596 .
Balkwill F, Chambers K ( 2015 ) . Centre of the Cell: Science Comes to Life . PLoS Biology vol. 13 , ( 9 )
Gopinathan G, Milagre C, Pearce OMT, Reynolds L, Hodivala-Dilke K, Leinster A, Zhong H, Hollingsworth RE et al. ( 2015 ) . Abstract 4162: Interleukin–6 stimulates defective angiogenesis . 4162 - 4162 .
Montfort A, Boehm S, Dowe T, Topping J, Lockley M, Capasso M, Balkwill F ( 2015 ) . Abstract 455: B cells actively participate to the anti-cancer immune response in high grade serous ovarian cancer metastases . 455 - 455 .
Gopinathan G, Milagre C, Pearce OMT, Reynolds LE, Hodivala-Dilke K, Leinster DA, Zhong H, Hollingsworth RE et al. ( 2015 ) . Interleukin-6 stimulates defective angiogenesis . Cancer Research vol. 75 , ( 15 ) 3098 - 3107 .
Milagre CS, Gopinathan G, Everitt G, Thompson RG, Kulbe H, Zhong H, Hollingsworth RE, Grose R et al. ( 2015 ) . Adaptive upregulation of EGFR limits attenuation of tumor growth by neutralizing IL6 antibodies, with implications for combined therapy in ovarian cancer . Cancer Research vol. 75 , ( 7 ) 1255 - 1264 .
Balkwill F ( 2015 ) . Targeting inflammatory cytokines in cancer . CLINICAL & EXPERIMENTAL METASTASIS vol. 32 , ( 3 ) 183 - 183 .
Bowtell DD, Böhm S, Ahmed AA, Aspuria PJ, Bast RC, Beral V, Berek JS, Birrer MJ et al. ( 2015 ) . Rethinking ovarian cancer II: Reducing mortality from high-grade serous ovarian cancer . Nature Reviews Cancer vol. 15 , ( 11 ) 668 - 679 .
Balkwill F ( 2014 ) . Targeting inflammatory cytokines in cancer . CYTOKINE . vol. 70 , 21 - 21 .
Berlato C, Kahn MN, Schioppa T, Thompson R, Maniati E, Canosa M, Kulbe H, Sheldon C et al. ( 2014 ) . Abstract 1076: Antagonists of the chemokine receptor CCR4 reverse the tumor-promoting microenvironment of renal cancer . 1076 - 1076 .
Rei M, Gonçalves-Sousa N, Lança T, Thompson RG, Mensurado S, Balkwill FR, Kulbe H, Pennington DJ et al. ( 2014 ) . Murine CD27(-) Vγ6(+) γδ T cells producing IL-17A promote ovarian cancer growth via mobilization of protumor small peritoneal macrophages . Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A vol. 111 , ( 34 ) E3562 - E3570 .
Balkwill F ( 2014 ) . 33: Targeting cancer-related inflammation . European Journal of Cancer vol. 50 ,
Karin M, Jobin C, Balkwill F ( 2014 ) . Chemotherapy, immunity and microbiota--a new triumvirate? . Nat Med vol. 20 , ( 2 ) 126 - 127 .
Lau T-S, Chung TK-H, Cheung T-H, Chan LK-Y, Cheung LW-H, Yim S-F, Siu NS-S, Lo K-W et al. ( 2014 ) . Cancer cell-derived lymphotoxin mediates reciprocal tumour-stromal interactions in human ovarian cancer by inducing CXCL11 in fibroblasts . J Pathol vol. 232 , ( 1 ) 43 - 56 .
Rei M, Lanca T, Thompson R, Balkwill F, Silva-Santos B, Pennington DJ ( 2013 ) . Major contribution of gamma delta T cells to IL-17A production and ovarian cancer cell growth in vivo . IMMUNOLOGY . vol. 140 , 160 - 160 .
Whilding LM, Archibald KM, Kulbe H, Balkwill FR, Öberg D, McNeish IA ( 2013 ) . Vaccinia virus induces programmed necrosis in ovarian cancer cells . Mol Ther vol. 21 , ( 11 ) 2074 - 2086 .
Leinster DA, Colom B, Whiteford JR, Ennis DP, Lockley M, McNeish IA, Aurrand-Lions M, Chavakis T et al. ( 2013 ) . Endothelial cell junctional adhesion molecule C plays a key role in the development of tumors in a murine model of ovarian cancer . FASEB J vol. 27 , ( 10 ) 4244 - 4253 .
Boehm S, Ennis D, Dowe T, Canosa M, McNeish I, Lockley M, Balkwill F ( 2013 ) . Tumour-associated inflammatory cytokines are reduced following primary platinum-based chemotherapy in plasma of high-grade serous ovarian cancer patients . EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF CANCER . vol. 49 , S736 - S736 .
Sandhu SK, Papadopoulos K, Fong PC, Patnaik A, Messiou C, Olmos D, Wang G, Tromp BJ et al. ( 2013 ) . A first-in-human, first-in-class, phase I study of carlumab (CNTO 888), a human monoclonal antibody against CC-chemokine ligand 2 in patients with solid tumors . Cancer Chemother Pharmacol vol. 71 , ( 4 ) 1041 - 1050 .
Balkwill F, Montfort A, Capasso M ( 2013 ) . B regulatory cells in cancer . Trends Immunol vol. 34 , ( 4 ) 169 - 173 .
Balkwill FR, Capasso M, Hagemann T ( 2012 ) . The tumor microenvironment at a glance . J Cell Sci vol. 125 , ( Pt 23 ) 5591 - 5596 .
Archibald KM, Kulbe H, Kwong J, Chakravarty P, Temple J, Chaplin T, Flak MB, McNeish IA et al. ( 2012 ) . Sequential genetic change at the TP53 and chemokine receptor CXCR4 locus during transformation of human ovarian surface epithelium . Oncogene vol. 31 , ( 48 ) 4987 - 4995 .
Balkwill F ( 2012 ) . Targeting Cytokine Networks in Malignancy . EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF CANCER . vol. 48 , S10 - S10 .
Leinster DA, Kulbe H, Everitt G, Thompson R, Perretti M, Gavins FNE, Cooper D, Gould D et al. ( 2012 ) . The peritoneal tumour microenvironment of high-grade serous ovarian cancer . J Pathol vol. 227 , ( 2 ) 136 - 145 .
Affara NI, Ruffell B, Johansson M, Fujikawa K, Bergsland E, DeNardo DG, Chen HI, Wadhwani N et al. ( 2012 ) . Abstract 4391: CD20 as a target for therapy in solid tumors . 4391 - 4391 .
Kulbe H, Chakravarty P, Moore R, Iorio F, Montoya A, Saez-Rodriguez J, Cutillas P, Balkwill F ( 2012 ) . Abstract 49: Targeting the TNF network in human ovarian cancer - A systems biology approach . 49 - 49 .
Stone RL, Nick AM, McNeish IA, Balkwill F, Han HD, Bottsford-Miller J, Rupairmoole R, Armaiz-Pena GN et al. ( 2012 ) . Paraneoplastic thrombocytosis in ovarian cancer . N Engl J Med vol. 366 , ( 7 ) 610 - 618 .
Balkwill FR, Mantovani A ( 2012 ) . Cancer-related inflammation: common themes and therapeutic opportunities . Semin Cancer Biol vol. 22 , ( 1 ) 33 - 40 .
Kulbe H, Chakravarty P, Leinster DA, Charles KA, Kwong J, Thompson RG, Coward JI, Schioppa T et al. ( 2012 ) . A dynamic inflammatory cytokine network in the human ovarian cancer microenvironment . Cancer Res vol. 72 , ( 1 ) 66 - 75 .
Balkwill FR ( 2012 ) . The chemokine system and cancer . J Pathol vol. 226 , ( 2 ) 148 - 157 .
Balkwill FR, Coward J, Kulbe H, Milagre C, Gopinathan G, McNeish IA ( 2011 ) . IL-6 and ovarian cancer--response . Clin Cancer Res vol. 17 , ( 24 )
Maniati E, Bossard M, Cook N, Candido J, Emami-Shahri N, Nedospasov S, Balkwill F, Tuveson D et al. ( 2011 ) . Cross-talk between IKK2 and Notch promotes pancreatic cancer progression in mice through Hes1 mediated PPAR gamma inhibitio . IMMUNOLOGY . vol. 135 , 169 - 169 .
Maniati E, Bossard M, Cook N, Candido JB, Emami-Shahri N, Nedospasov SA, Balkwill FR, Tuveson DA et al. ( 2011 ) . Crosstalk between the canonical NF-κB and Notch signaling pathways inhibits Pparγ expression and promotes pancreatic cancer progression in mice . J Clin Invest vol. 121 , ( 12 ) 4685 - 4699 .
Coward J, Balkwill F ( 2011 ) . Targeting inflammatory pathways in epithelial ovarian cancer . Emerging Therapeutic Targets in Ovarian Cancer ,
Balkwill F ( 2011 ) . The inflammatory tissue microenvironment and the early stages of malignancy . Pre-Invasive Disease: Pathogenesis and Clinical Management ,
Rei M, Lanca T, King E, Kulbe H, Balkwill F, Silva-Santos B, Pennington DJ ( 2011 ) . Understanding the dual role of murine gamma delta T cells in tumour surveillance and tumour progression . IMMUNOLOGY . vol. 135 , 146 - 146 .
Balkwill F ( 2011 ) . Inflammatory cytokines and autocrine tumour-promoting networks . CYTOKINE . vol. 56 , 51 - 51 .
Vaughan S, Coward JI, Bast RC, Berchuck A, Berek JS, Brenton JD, Coukos G, Crum CC et al. ( 2011 ) . Rethinking ovarian cancer: recommendations for improving outcomes . Nat Rev Cancer vol. 11 , ( 10 ) 719 - 725 .
Coward J, Kulbe H, Chakravarty P, Leader D, Vassileva V, Leinster DA, Thompson R, Schioppa T et al. ( 2011 ) . Interleukin-6 as a therapeutic target in human ovarian cancer . Clin Cancer Res vol. 17 , ( 18 ) 6083 - 6096 .
Balkwill F, Whitehead S, Willis P, Gaymond N, Kent A, Page C, Lovell-Badge R, Morris R et al. ( 2011 ) . Safety of medicines and the use of animals in research . Lancet vol. 378 , ( 9786 ) 127 - 128 .
Schioppa T, Moore R, Thompson RG, Rosser EC, Kulbe H, Nedospasov S, Mauri C, Coussens LM et al. ( 2011 ) . B regulatory cells and the tumor-promoting actions of TNF-α during squamous carcinogenesis . Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A vol. 108 , ( 26 ) 10662 - 10667 .
Balkwill F ( 2011 ) . INFLAMMATORY CYTOKINES AND AUTOCRINE TUMOR-PROMOTING NETWORKS . INFLAMMATION RESEARCH . vol. 60 , 26 - 26 .
Allan S, Balkwill F ( 2011 ) . Translating science in more ways than one: an interview with Frances Balkwill . DIS MODEL MECH vol. 4 , ( 3 ) 286 - 288 .
Anglesio MS, George J, Kulbe H, Friedlander M, Rischin D, Lemech C, Power J, Coward J et al. ( 2011 ) . IL6-STAT3-HIF signaling and therapeutic response to the angiogenesis inhibitor sunitinib in ovarian clear cell cancer . Clin Cancer Res vol. 17 , ( 8 ) 2538 - 2548 .
Salako MA, Kulbe H, Ingemarsdotter CK, Pirlo KJ, Williams SL, Lockley M, Balkwill FR, McNeish IA ( 2011 ) . Inhibition of the inflammatory cytokine TNF-α increases adenovirus activity in ovarian cancer via modulation of cIAP1/2 expression . Mol Ther vol. 19 , ( 3 ) 490 - 499 .
Balkwill F ( 2011 ) . MECHANISMS OF THE TUMOR-PROMOTING ACTION OF TNF-alpha IN EPITHELIAL TUMORS . ADVANCES IN TNF FAMILY RESEARCH . Editors: Wallach, D, Kovalenko, A, Feldman, M , vol. 691 , 653 - 654 .
Schioppa T, Moore R, Thompson R, de Visser K, Coussens LM, Balkwill F ( 2011 ) . ROLE OF B CELL IN TWO-STAGE SKIN CARCINOGENESIS . ADVANCES IN TNF FAMILY RESEARCH . Editors: Wallach, D, Kovalenko, A, Feldman, M , vol. 691 , 755 - 756 .
Balkwill F ( 2010 ) . Inflammatory cytokines and autocrine tumor-promoting networks . IMMUNOLOGY . vol. 131 , 3 - 3 .
Balkwill F, Joffroy C ( 2010 ) . TNF: a tumor-suppressing factor or a tumor-promoting factor? . Future Oncol vol. 6 , ( 12 ) 1833 - 1836 .
Flak MB, Connell CM, Chelala C, Archibald K, Salako MA, Pirlo KJ, Lockley M, Wheatley SP et al. ( 2010 ) . p21 Promotes oncolytic adenoviral activity in ovarian cancer and is a potential biomarker . Mol Cancer vol. 9 ,
Toulza F, Nosaka K, Tanaka Y, Schioppa T, Balkwill F, Taylor GP, Bangham CRM ( 2010 ) . Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1-induced CC chemokine ligand 22 maintains a high frequency of functional FoxP3+ regulatory T cells . J Immunol vol. 185 , ( 1 ) 183 - 189 .
Workman P, Aboagye EO, Balkwill F, Balmain A, Bruder G, Chaplin DJ, Double JA, Everitt J et al. ( 2010 ) . Guidelines for the welfare and use of animals in cancer research . Br J Cancer vol. 102 , ( 11 ) 1555 - 1577 .
Coward JI, Kulbe H, Leader D, Quigley M, Thompson R, Leinster A, Nemeth J, Vermeulen J et al. ( 2010 ) . Interleukin-6 as a therapeutic target in advanced ovarian cancer . Journal of Clinical Oncology . vol. 28 , 5089 - 5089 .
Forster MD, Patnaik A, Sandhu SK, Papadopoulos K, Tromp BJ, Messiou C, Balkwill F, Berns B et al. ( 2010 ) . Pre-final analysis of first-in-human, first-in-class, phase I clinical trial of CNTO 888, a human monoclonal antibody to the CC-chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2) in patients (pts) with advanced solid tumors . Journal of Clinical Oncology . vol. 28 , 2548 - 2548 .
Coward J, Kulbe H, Leader D, Quigley M, Leinster DA, Thompson R, Nemeth J, Vermeulen J et al. ( 2010 ) . Abstract 5331: Interleukin-6 as a therapeutic target in advanced ovarian cancer . 5331 - 5331 .
Balkwill F, Mantovani A ( 2010 ) . Cancer and inflammation: implications for pharmacology and therapeutics . Clin Pharmacol Ther vol. 87 , ( 4 ) 401 - 406 .
Saadi A, Shannon NB, Lao-Sirieix P, O'Donovan M, Walker E, Clemons NJ, Hardwick JS, Zhang C et al. ( 2010 ) . Stromal genes discriminate preinvasive from invasive disease, predict outcome, and highlight inflammatory pathways in digestive cancers . Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A vol. 107 , ( 5 ) 2177 - 2182 .
Balkwill F, Mantovani A ( 2010 ) . Foreword . Cytokine Growth Factor Rev vol. 21 , ( 1 )
Sandhu SK, Fong PC, Patnaik A, Papadopoulos K, Messiou C, Hoare S, Olmos D, Tromp BJ et al. ( 2009 ) . Abstract A102: First‐in‐man, first‐in‐class, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic phase I clinical trial of a human monoclonal antibody CNTO888 to CC‐chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2) / monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP‐1) in patients with advanced solid tumors . a102 - a102 .
Charles KA, Kulbe H, Soper R, Escorcio-Correia M, Lawrence T, Schultheis A, Chakravarty P, Thompson RG et al. ( 2009 ) . The tumor-promoting actions of TNF-alpha involve TNFR1 and IL-17 in ovarian cancer in mice and humans . J Clin Invest vol. 119 , ( 10 ) 3011 - 3023 .
Kwong J, Kulbe H, Wong D, Chakravarty P, Balkwill F ( 2009 ) . An antagonist of the chemokine receptor CXCR4 induces mitotic catastrophe in ovarian cancer cells . Mol Cancer Ther vol. 8 , ( 7 ) 1893 - 1905 .
Kwong J, Chan FL, Wong K-K, Birrer MJ, Archibald KM, Balkwill FR, Berkowitz RS, Mok SC ( 2009 ) . Inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha confers precancerous phenotype in an organoid model of normal human ovarian surface epithelial cells . Neoplasia vol. 11 , ( 6 ) 529 - 541 .
Coward J, Quigley M, Leader D, Berns B, Balkwill F, McNeish I ( 2009 ) . A Phase II study of intravenous CNT0328 in patients with recurrent epithelial ovarian cancer . CANCER RESEARCH vol. 69 ,
Kulbe H, Leinster A, Chakravarty P, Kwong J, Thompson R, Schioppa T, Coward J, Hagemann T et al. ( 2009 ) . An autocrine cytokine network in ovarian cancer that influences patient survival . CANCER RESEARCH . vol. 69 ,
Balkwill FR ( 2009 ) . CHEMOKINE RECEPTORS AND INFLAMMATION IN CANCER . ANNALS OF ONCOLOGY . vol. 20 , 17 - 17 .
Schioppa T, Moore R, Thompson R, de Visser K, Coussens L, Balkwill F ( 2009 ) . Role of B cell in two-stage skin carcinogenesis . CANCER RESEARCH vol. 69 ,
Archibald K, Kwong J, Kulbe H, Young B, Balkwill F ( 2009 ) . Spontaneously transformed hTERT immortalized human ovarian surface epithelial cells have a functional amplification of the CXCR4 gene locus . CANCER RESEARCH vol. 69 ,
Balkwill F ( 2009 ) . Tumour necrosis factor and cancer . Nat Rev Cancer vol. 9 , ( 5 ) 361 - 371 .
Li NF, Kocher HM, Salako MA, Obermueller E, Sandle J, Balkwill F ( 2009 ) . A novel function of colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor in hTERT immortalization of human epithelial cells . Oncogene vol. 28 , ( 5 ) 773 - 780 .
Mantovani A, Allavena P, Sica A, Balkwill F ( 2008 ) . Cancer-related inflammation . Nature vol. 454 , ( 7203 ) 436 - 444 .
Brown ER, Charles KA, Hoare SA, Rye RL, Jodrell DI, Aird RE, Vora R, Prabhakar U et al. ( 2008 ) . A clinical study assessing the tolerability and biological effects of infliximab, a TNF-alpha inhibitor, in patients with advanced cancer . ANN ONCOL vol. 19 , ( 7 ) 1340 - 1346 .
Hagemann T, Lawrence T, McNeish I, Charles KA, Kulbe H, Thompson RG, Robinson SC, Balkwill FR ( 2008 ) . "Re-educating" tumor-associated macrophages by targeting NF-kappaB . J Exp Med vol. 205 , ( 6 ) 1261 - 1268 .
Ashworth A, Balkwill F, Bast RC, Berek JS, Kaye A, Boyd JA, Mills G, Weinstein JN et al. ( 2008 ) . Opportunities and challenges in ovarian cancer research, a perspective from the 11th Ovarian cancer action/HHMT Forum, Lake Como, March 2007 . GYNECOL ONCOL vol. 108 , ( 3 ) 652 - 657 .
Karagiannis SN, Bracher MG, Beavil RL, Beavil AJ, Hunt J, McCloskey N, Thompson RG, East N et al. ( 2008 ) . Role of IgE receptors in IgE antibody-dependent cytotoxicity and phagocytosis of ovarian tumor cells by human monocytic cells . CANCER IMMUNOL IMMUN vol. 57 , ( 2 ) 247 - 263 .
Harrison ML, Obermueller E, Maisey NR, Hoare S, Edmonds K, Li NF, Chao D, Hall K et al. ( 2007 ) . Tumor necrosis factor alpha as a new target for renal cell carcinoma: Two sequential phase II trials of infliximab at standard and high dose . JOURNAL OF CLINICAL ONCOLOGY . vol. 25 , 4542 - 4549 .
Li NF, Broad S, Lu YJ, Yang JS, Watson R, Hagemann T, Wilbanks G, Jacobs I et al. ( 2007 ) . Human ovarian surface epithelial cells immortalized with hTERT maintain functional pRb and p53 expression . Cell Prolif vol. 40 , ( 5 ) 780 - 794 .
Hagemann T, Balkwill F, Lawrence T ( 2007 ) . Inflammation and cancer: A double-edged sword . CANCER CELL vol. 12 , ( 4 ) 300 - 301 .
Karagiannis SN, Bracher MG, Hunt J, McCloskey N, Beavil RL, Beavil AJ, Fear DJ, Thompson RG et al. ( 2007 ) . IgE-antibody-dependent immunotherapy of solid tumors: Cytotoxic and phagocytic mechanisms of eradication of ovarian cancer cells . J IMMUNOL vol. 179 , ( 5 ) 2832 - 2843 .
Lawrence T, Hageman T, Balkwill F ( 2007 ) . Cancer. Sex, cytokines, and cancer . Science vol. 317 , ( 5834 ) 51 - 52 .
Szlosarek PW, Grimshaw MJ, Wilbanks GD, Hagemann T, Wilson JL, Burke F, Stamp G, Balkwill FR ( 2007 ) . Aberrant regulation of argininosuccinate synthetase by TNF-alpha in human epithelial ovarian cancer . Int J Cancer vol. 121 , ( 1 ) 6 - 11 .
Hagemann T, Robinson SC, Thompson RG, Charles K, Kulbe H, Balkwill FR ( 2007 ) . Ovarian cancer cell-derived migration inhibitory factor enhances tumor growth, progression, and angiogenesis . Mol Cancer Ther vol. 6 , ( 7 ) 1993 - 2002 .
Kulbe H, Thompson R, Wilson JL, Robinson S, Hagemann T, Fatah R, Gould D, Ayhan A et al. ( 2007 ) . The inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha generates an autocrine tumor-promoting network in epithelial ovarian cancer cells . CANCER RES vol. 67 , ( 2 ) 585 - 592 .
Lawrence T, Fong C, Bebien M, Karin M, Balkwill F, Hagemann T ( 2007 ) . IKKbeta inhibits 'Classical' macrophage activation in innate immunity and cancer . JOURNAL OF LEUKOCYTE BIOLOGY . 41 - 41 .
Szlosarek PW, Klabatsa A, Pallaska A, Sheaff M, Smith P, Crook T, Grimshaw MJ, Steele JP et al. ( 2006 ) . In vivo loss of expression of argininosuccinate synthetase in malignant pleural mesothelioma is a biomarker for susceptibility to arginine depletion . CLIN CANCER RES vol. 12 , ( 23 ) 7126 - 7131 .
Mantovani A, Balkwill F ( 2006 ) . RaIB signaling: A bridge between inflammation and cancer . CELL vol. 127 , ( 1 ) 42 - 44 .
Direkze NC, Jeffery R, Hodivala-Dilke K, Burke F, Hunt FT, Poulsom R, Balkwill F, Wright NA et al. ( 2006 ) . Bone marrow contributes to functionally active cells in tumour stroma . JOURNAL OF PATHOLOGY . vol. 210 , 1 - 1 .
Balkwill F ( 2006 ) . TNF-alpha in promotion and progression of cancer . Cancer Metastasis Rev vol. 25 , ( 3 ) 409 - 416 .
Strauss SJ, Maharaj L, Hoare S, Johnson PW, Radford JA, Vinnecombe S, Millard L, Rohatiner A et al. ( 2006 ) . Bortezomib therapy in patients with relapsed or refractory lymphoma: potential correlation of in vitro sensitivity and tumor necrosis factor alpha response with clinical activity . J Clin Oncol vol. 24 , ( 13 ) 2105 - 2112 .
Hagemann T, Wilson J, Burke F, Kulbe H, Li NF, Plüddemann A, Charles K, Gordon S et al. ( 2006 ) . Ovarian cancer cells polarize macrophages toward a tumor-associated phenotype . J Immunol vol. 176 , ( 8 ) 5023 - 5032 .
Hagemann T, Wilson J, Burke F, Kulbe H, Li NF, Pluddemann A, Charles K, Gordon S et al. ( 2006 ) . Ovarian cancer cells polarize macrophages towards a tumor-associated phenotype . MED KLIN vol. 101 , ( 4 ) A44 - A44 .
Balkwill F ( 2006 ) . Cancer and inflammation . EUR J CANCER vol. 42 , ( 6 ) 689 - 690 .
Szlosarek P, Charles KA, Balkwill FR ( 2006 ) . Tumour necrosis factor-alpha as a tumour promoter . Eur J Cancer vol. 42 , ( 6 ) 745 - 750 .
Balkwill FR, Ashworth A, Bast RC, Berek JS, Boyd J, Disis ML, Gabra H, Gore ME et al. ( 2006 ) . 10th Biennial Helene Harris Memorial Trust meeting . Cancer Res vol. 66 , ( 6 ) 2904 - 2906 .
Balkwill F ( 2006 ) . Inflammation: a double-edged sword . EUR J CANCER vol. 42 , ( 5 ) 571 - 571 .
Szlosarek PW, Grimshaw MJ, Kulbe H, Wilson JL, Wilbanks GD, Burke F, Balkwill FR ( 2006 ) . Expression and regulation of tumor necrosis factor alpha in normal and malignant ovarian epithelium . MOL CANCER THER vol. 5 , ( 2 ) 382 - 390 .
Kulbe H, Hagemann T, Szlosarek PW, Balkwill FR, Wilson JL ( 2005 ) . The inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha regulates chemokine receptor expression on ovarian cancer cells . CANCER RES vol. 65 , ( 22 ) 10355 - 10362 .
Hagemann T, Balkwill F ( 2005 ) . MIFed about cancer? . GASTROENTEROLOGY vol. 129 , ( 5 ) 1785 - 1787 .
Madhusudan S, Muthuramalingam SR, Braybrooke JP, Wilner S, Kaur K, Han C, Hoare S, Balkwill F et al. ( 2005 ) . Study of etanercept, a tumor necrosis factor-alpha inhibitor, in recurrent ovarian cancer . J Clin Oncol vol. 23 , ( 25 ) 5950 - 5959 .
Hagemann T, Wilson J, Kulbe H, Li NF, Leinster DA, Charles K, Klemm F, Pukrop T et al. ( 2005 ) . Macrophages induce invasiveness of epithelial cancer cells via NF-kappa B and JNK . J Immunol vol. 175 , ( 2 ) 1197 - 1205 .
Barton C, Davies D, Balkwill F, Burke F ( 2005 ) . Involvement of both intrinsic and extrinsic pathways in IFN-gamma-induced apoptosis that are enhanced with cisplatin . Eur J Cancer vol. 41 , ( 10 ) 1474 - 1486 .
Balkwill F ( 2005 ) . The language of life: How cells communicate in health and disease . NATURE vol. 435 , ( 7046 ) 1162 - 1162 .
Strauss S, Maharaj L, Hoare S, Trehu E, Boral A, Schenkein D, Johnson P, Balkwill F et al. ( 2005 ) . Bortezomib (VELCADE (R)) in patients with relapsed/refractory lymphoma: Potential correlation of TNF alpha response and in vitro sensitivity with clinical activity . ANNALS OF ONCOLOGY . vol. 16 , 65 - 65 .
Balkwill F ( 2005 ) . Immunology for the next generation . Nat Rev Immunol vol. 5 , ( 6 ) 509 - 512 .
Direkze N, Jeffery R, Hodivala-Dilke K, Burke F, Hunt T, Poulsom R, Alison M, Balkwill F et al. ( 2005 ) . Bone marrow contributes functionally active cell types to tumour stroma . GASTROENTEROLOGY . vol. 128 , A182 - A182 .
Direkze NC, Jeffery R, Hodivala-Dilke K, Burke F, Hunt FT, Poulsom R, Alison MR, Balkwill F et al. ( 2005 ) . Bone marrow contributes to functionally active cells in tumour stroma . GUT . vol. 54 , A24 - A24 .
Balkwill F, Watt F ( 2005 ) . Fran Balkwill . J Cell Sci vol. 118 , ( Pt 7 ) 1339 - 1340 .
Balkwill F, Charles KA, Mantovani A ( 2005 ) . Smoldering and polarized inflammation in the initiation and promotion of malignant disease . CANCER CELL vol. 7 , ( 3 ) 211 - 217 .
Oppenheim J, Blankenstein T, Brennan F, Gordon S, Mantovani A, Strieter RM, Cerundolo V, Forni G et al. ( 2004 ) . Discussion . Novartis Foundation Symposium . vol. 256 , 210 - 214 .
D'Incalci M, Strieter RM, Mantovani A, Balkwill F, Ristimäki A, Pepper MS, Gordon S, Pollard JW ( 2004 ) . Final general discussion . Novartis Foundation Symposium . vol. 256 , 259 - 265 .
Smyth J, Rollins B, Harris A, Richmond A, Oppenheim J, Feldmann M, Ristimäki A, Pepper MS et al. ( 2004 ) . General discussion I . Novartis Foundation Symposium . vol. 256 , 49 - 52 .
Balkwill FR ( 2004 ) . The inflammatory cytokine network and the development of epithelial cancer . CANCER EPIDEMIOLOGY BIOMARKERS & PREVENTION . vol. 13 , 1958S - 1958S .
Madhusudan S, Foster M, Muthuramalingam SR, Braybrooke JP, Wilner S, Kaur K, Han C, Hoare S et al. ( 2004 ) . A phase II study of etanercept (Enbrel), a tumor necrosis factor alpha inhibitor in patients with metastatic breast cancer . Clin Cancer Res vol. 10 , ( 19 ) 6528 - 6534 .
Balkwill F, Coussens LM ( 2004 ) . Cancer - An inflammatory link . NATURE vol. 431 , ( 7007 ) 405 - 406 .
Scott KA, Arnott CH, Robinson SC, Moore RJ, Thompson RG, Marshall JF, Balkwill FR ( 2004 ) . TNF-alpha regulates epithelial expression of MMP-9 and integrin alphavbeta6 during tumour promotion. A role for TNF-alpha in keratinocyte migration? . Oncogene vol. 23 , ( 41 ) 6954 - 6966 .
Hagemann T, Robinson SC, Schulz M, Trümper L, Balkwill FR, Binder C ( 2004 ) . Enhanced invasiveness of breast cancer cell lines upon co-cultivation with macrophages is due to TNF-alpha dependent up-regulation of matrix metalloproteases . Carcinogenesis vol. 25 , ( 8 ) 1543 - 1549 .
Jones PH, Christodoulos K, Dobbs N, Thavasu P, Balkwill F, Blann AD, Caine GJ, Kumar S et al. ( 2004 ) . Combination antiangiogenesis therapy with marimastat, captopril and fragmin in patients with advanced cancer . Br J Cancer vol. 91 , ( 1 ) 30 - 36 .
Li NF, Wilbanks G, Balkwill F, Jacobs IJ, Dafou D, Gayther SA ( 2004 ) . A modified medium that significantly improves the growth of human normal ovarian surface epithelial (OSE) cells in vitro . Lab Invest vol. 84 , ( 7 ) 923 - 931 .
Balkwill F ( 2004 ) . Cancer and the chemokine network . NAT REV CANCER vol. 4 , ( 7 ) 540 - 550 .
Li N, Wilbanks G, Dafou D, Jacobs I, Balkwill F, Gayther S ( 2004 ) . Establishing cellular model for studying the carcinogenesis of human ovarian epithelium . BRITISH JOURNAL OF CANCER . vol. 91 , S74 - S74 .
Szlosarek PW, Grimshaw MJ, Wilbanks GD, Burke F, Wilson JL, Balkwill FR ( 2004 ) . Regulation and expression of argininosuccinate synthetase in human ovarian cancer . BRITISH JOURNAL OF CANCER . vol. 91 , S57 - S57 .
Kulbe H, Wilson JL, Balkwill FR ( 2004 ) . Transfection of the chemokine receptor CXCR4 alters the behavior of ovarian cancer cells in vitro and in vivo . BRITISH JOURNAL OF CANCER . vol. 91 , S74 - S74 .
Balkwill F ( 2004 ) . The significance of cancer cell expression of the chemokine receptor CXCR4 . SEMIN CANCER BIOL vol. 14 , ( 3 ) 171 - 179 .
Grimshaw MJ, Hagemann T, Ayhan A, Gillett CE, Binder C, Balkwill FR ( 2004 ) . A role for endothelin-2 and its receptors in breast tumor cell invasion . Cancer Res vol. 64 , ( 7 ) 2461 - 2468 .
Arnott CH, Scott KA, Moore RJ, Robinson SC, Thompson RG, Balkwill FR ( 2004 ) . Expression of both TNF-alpha receptor subtypes is essential for optimal skin tumour development . Oncogene vol. 23 , ( 10 ) 1902 - 1910 .
Balkwill F, Bast RC, Berek J, Chenevix-Trench G, Gore M, Hamilton T, Jacobs I, Mills G et al. ( 2004 ) . Current research and treatment for epithelial ovarian cancer. A position paper from the Helene Harris Memorial Trust (vol 39, pg 1818, 2003) . EUR J CANCER vol. 40 , ( 4 ) 628 - 628 .
Kulbe H, Levinson NR, Balkwill F, Wilson JL ( 2004 ) . The chemokine network in cancer - much more than directing cell movement . INT J DEV BIOL vol. 48 , ( 5-6 ) 489 - 496 .
Szlosarek P, Balkwill F ( 2004 ) . The inflammatory cytokine network of epithelial cancer: therapeutic implications . Novartis Found Symp vol. 256 , 227 - 237 .
Robinson SC, Scott KA, Wilson JL, Thompson RG, Proudfoot AEI, Balkwill FR ( 2003 ) . A chemokine receptor antagonist inhibits experimental breast tumor growth . Cancer Res vol. 63 , ( 23 ) 8360 - 8365 .
Madhusudan S, Braybrooke JP, Forster M, Wilner S, Han C, Kaur K, Balkwill F, Hoare S et al. ( 2003 ) . A phase II Trial of etanercept a recombinant human soluble tumour necrosis factor receptor (p75) fusion protein in patients with metastatic breast cancer . CLINICAL CANCER RESEARCH . vol. 9 , 6192S - 6192S .
Arnott CH, Scott KA, Moore RJ, Robinson SC, Thompson RG, East N, Balkwill FR ( 2003 ) . Expression of both TNFR1 and TNFR2 is essential for optimal TNF-alpha-mediated skin tumor development . CLINICAL CANCER RESEARCH . vol. 9 , 6212S - 6212S .
Balkwill F ( 2003 ) . Inhibiting inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in the tumour microenvironment . JOURNAL OF IMMUNOTHERAPY . vol. 26 , S26 - S27 .
Madhusudan S, Protheroe A, Propper D, Han C, Corrie P, Earl H, Hancock B, Vasey P et al. ( 2003 ) . A multicentre phase II trial of bryostatin-1 in patients with advanced renal cancer . BRIT J CANCER vol. 89 , ( 8 ) 1418 - 1422 .
Balkwill F, Bast RC, Berek J, Chenevix-Trench G, Gore M, Hamilton T, Jacobs I, Mills G et al. ( 2003 ) . Current research and treatment for epithelial ovarian cancer. A Position Paper from the Helene Harris Memorial Trust . Eur J Cancer vol. 39 , ( 13 ) 1818 - 1827 .
Szlosarek PW, Balkwill FR ( 2003 ) . Tumour necrosis factor alpha: a potential target for the therapy of solid tumours . Lancet Oncol vol. 4 , ( 9 ) 565 - 573 .
Ramalingam S, Hoare S, Madhusudan S, Braybrooke J, Kaur K, Willner S, Harris AL, Balkwill F et al. ( 2003 ) . A phase II trial of etanercept, a tumour necrosis factor-alpha inhibitor in recurrent ovarian cancer . BRITISH JOURNAL OF CANCER . vol. 88 , S57 - S57 .
Wall L, Burke F, Barton C, Smyth J, Balkwill F ( 2003 ) . IFN-gamma induces apoptosis in ovarian cancer cells in vivo and in vitro . Clin Cancer Res vol. 9 , ( 7 ) 2487 - 2496 .
Wall L, Burke F, Barton C, Smyth J, Balkwill F ( 2003 ) . IFN-γ induces apoptosis in ovarian cancer cells in vivo and in vitro . Clinical Cancer Research vol. 9 , ( 7 ) 2487 - 2496 .
Scott KA, Moore RJ, Arnott CH, East N, Thompson RG, Scallon BJ, Shealy DJ, Balkwill FR ( 2003 ) . An anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha antibody inhibits the development of experimental skin tumors . Mol Cancer Ther vol. 2 , ( 5 ) 445 - 451 .
Karagiannis SN, Wang Q, East N, Burke F, Riffard S, Bracher MG, Thompson RG, Durham SR et al. ( 2003 ) . Activity of human monocytes in IgE antibody-dependent surveillance and killing of ovarian tumor cells . EUR J IMMUNOL vol. 33 , ( 4 ) 1030 - 1040 .
Balkwill F ( 2003 ) . Chemokine biology in cancer . SEMIN IMMUNOL vol. 15 , ( 1 ) 49 - 55 .
Balkwill F, Schlom J, Berek J, Epenetos A, Bookman M, Freedman R, Wilbanks G ( 2003 ) . Discussion: Immunological therapeutics in ovarian cancer . GYNECOLOGIC ONCOLOGY . vol. 88 , S110 - S113 .
Propper DJ, Chao D, Braybrooke JP, Bahl P, Thavasu P, Balkwill F, Turley H, Dobbs N et al. ( 2003 ) . Low-dose IFN-gamma induces tumor MHC expression in metastatic malignant melanoma . CLIN CANCER RES vol. 9 , ( 1 ) 84 - 92 .
Wall L, Burke F, Smyth JF, Balkwill F ( 2003 ) . The anti-proliferative activity of interferon-gamma on ovarian cancer: In vitro and in vivo . GYNECOLOGIC ONCOLOGY . vol. 88 , S149 - S151 .
Wall L, Burke F, Smyth JF, Balkwill F ( 2003 ) . The anti-proliferative activity of interferon-gamma on ovarian cancer: in vitro and in vivo . Gynecologic oncology vol. 88 , ( 1 Pt 2 )
Grimshaw MJ, Naylor S, Balkwill FR ( 2002 ) . Endothelin-2 is a hypoxia-induced autocrine survival factor for breast tumor cells . Mol Cancer Ther vol. 1 , ( 14 ) 1273 - 1281 .
Ganesan T, Madhusudan S, Braybrooke J, Echeta C, Wilner S, Harris AL, Hoare S, Balkwill F ( 2002 ) . A phase II trial of etanercept, a tumour necrosis factor-a inhibitor in recurrent ovarian cancer . EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF CANCER . vol. 38 , S140 - S140 .
Scotton CJ, Wilson JL, Scott K, Stamp G, Wilbanks GD, Fricker S, Bridger G, Balkwill FR ( 2002 ) . Multiple actions of the chemokine CXCL12 on epithelial tumor cells in human ovarian cancer . CANCER RES vol. 62 , ( 20 ) 5930 - 5938 .
Grimshaw MJ, Wilson JL, Balkwill FR ( 2002 ) . Endothelin-2 is a macrophage chemoattractant: Implications for macrophage distribution in tumors . European Journal of Immunology vol. 32 , ( 9 ) 2393 - 2400 .
Grimshaw MJ, Wilson JL, Balkwill FR ( 2002 ) . Endothelin-2 is a macrophage chemoattractant: implications for macrophage distribution in tumors . EUR J IMMUNOL vol. 32 , ( 9 ) 2393 - 2400 .
Arnott CH, Scott KA, Moore RJ, Hewer A, Phillips DH, Parker P, Balkwill FR, Owens DM ( 2002 ) . Tumour necrosis factor-alpha mediates tumour promotion via a PKC alpha- and AP-1-dependent pathway . Oncogene vol. 21 , ( 31 ) 4728 - 4738 .
Forster MD, Braybrooke J, Madhusudan S, Kaur K, Hoare S, Balkwill F, Ganesan TS, Talbot D et al. ( 2002 ) . A phase II trial using etanercept, a recombinant tumour necrosis factor antagonist, in metastatic breast cancer . BRIT J CANCER vol. 86 , S38 - S38 .
Wall L, Burke F, Smyth J, Balkwill F ( 2002 ) . Characterisation of the cell content of malignant ascites in advanced epithelial ovarian cancer and clinico-pathological correlations . BRIT J CANCER vol. 86 , S45 - S46 .
Milliken D, Scotton C, Raju S, Balkwill F, Wilson J ( 2002 ) . Analysis of chemokines and chemokine receptor expression in ovarian cancer ascites . CLIN CANCER RES vol. 8 , ( 4 ) 1108 - 1114 .
Wilson J, Balkwill F ( 2002 ) . The role of cytokines in the epithelial cancer microenvironment . SEMIN CANCER BIOL vol. 12 , ( 2 ) 113 - 120 .
Balkwill F ( 2002 ) . Tumor necrosis factor or tumor promoting factor? . Cytokine Growth Factor Rev vol. 13 , ( 2 ) 135 - 141 .
Robinson SC, Scott KA, Balkwill FR ( 2002 ) . Chemokine stimulation of monocyte matrix metalloproteinase-9 requires endogenous TNF-α . European Journal of Immunology vol. 32 , ( 2 ) 404 - 412 .
Robinson SC, Scott KA, Balkwill FR ( 2002 ) . Chemokine stimulation of monocyte matrix metalloproteinase-9 requires endogenous TNF-alpha . Eur J Immunol vol. 32 , ( 2 ) 404 - 412 .
Balkwill F ( 2001 ) . The science book . NATURE vol. 414 , ( 6866 ) 849 - 850 .
Scotton C, Milliken D, Wilson J, Raju S, Balkwill F ( 2001 ) . Analysis of CC chemokine and chemokine receptor expression in solid ovarian tumours . Br J Cancer vol. 85 , ( 6 ) 891 - 897 .
Scotton CJ, Wilson JL, Milliken D, Stamp G, Balkwill FR ( 2001 ) . Epithelial cancer cell migration: a role for chemokine receptors? . Cancer Res vol. 61 , ( 13 ) 4961 - 4965 .
Grimsha MJ, Balkwill FR ( 2001 ) . Inhibition of monocyte and macrophage chemotaxis by hypoxia and inflammation - A potential mechanism . BRIT J CANCER vol. 85 , 19 - 19 .
Grimshaw MJ, Balkwill FR ( 2001 ) . Inhibition of monocyte and macrophage chemotaxis by hypoxia and inflammation - A potential mechanism . European Journal of Immunology vol. 31 , ( 2 ) 480 - 489 .
Propper DJ, McDonald AC, Man A, Thavasu P, Balkwill F, Braybrooke JP, Caponigro F, Graf P et al. ( 2001 ) . Phase I and pharmacokinetic study of PKC412, an inhibitor of protein kinase C . J Clin Oncol vol. 19 , ( 5 ) 1485 - 1492 .
Balkwill F, Mantovani A ( 2001 ) . Inflammation and cancer: back to Virchow? . LANCET vol. 357 , ( 9255 ) 539 - 545 .
Grimshaw MJ, Balkwill FR ( 2001 ) . Inhibition of monocyte and macrophage chemotaxis by hypoxia and inflammation - a potential mechanism . EUR J IMMUNOL vol. 31 , ( 2 ) 480 - 489 .
Jankowski JA, Harrison RF, Perry I, Balkwill F, Tselepis C ( 2000 ) . Barrett's metaplasia . LANCET vol. 356 , ( 9247 ) 2079 - 2085 .
Balkwill FR ( 2000 ) . Re: Possible role of ovarian epithelial inflammation in ovarian cancer . J Natl Cancer Inst vol. 92 , ( 2 ) 162 - 163 .
Sica A, Saccani A, Bottazzi B, Bernasconi S, Allavena P, Gaetano B, Fei F, LaRosa G et al. ( 2000 ) . Defective expression of the monocyte chemotactic protein-1 receptor CCR2 in macrophages associated with human ovarian carcinoma . Journal of Immunology vol. 164 , ( 2 ) 733 - 738 .
Scott KA, Holdsworth H, Balkwill FR, Dias S ( 2000 ) . Exploiting changes in the tumour microenvironment with sequential cytokine and matrix metalloprotease inhibitor treatment in a murine breast cancer model . British Journal of Cancer vol. 83 , ( 11 ) 1538 - 1543 .
Balkwill F, Foxwell B, Brennan F ( 2000 ) . TNF is here to stay! . Immunology Today . vol. 21 , 470 - 471 .
Thavasu P, Propper D, McDonald A, Dobbs N, Ganesan T, Talbot D, Braybrook J, Caponigro F et al. ( 1999 ) . The protein kinase C inhibitor CGP41251 suppresses cytokine release and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2 expression in cancer patients . Cancer Research vol. 59 , ( 16 ) 3980 - 3984 .
Turner L, Scotton C, Negus R, Balkwill F ( 1999 ) . Hypoxia inhibits macrophage migration . European Journal of Immunology vol. 29 , ( 7 ) 2280 - 2287 .
Turner L, Scotton C, Negus R, Balkwill F ( 1999 ) . Hypoxia inhibits macrophage migration . Eur J Immunol vol. 29 , ( 7 ) 2280 - 2287 .
Moore RJ, Owens DM, Stamp G, Arnott C, Burke F, East N, Holdsworth H, Turner L et al. ( 1999 ) . Mice deficient in tumor necrosis factor-α are resistant to skin carcinogenesis . Nature Medicine vol. 5 , ( 7 ) 828 - 831 .
Burke F, Smith PD, Crompton MR, Upton C, Balkwill FR ( 1999 ) . Cytotoxic response of ovarian cancer cell lines to IFN-γ is associated with sustained induction of IRF-1 and p21 mRNA . British Journal of Cancer vol. 80 , ( 8 ) 1236 - 1244 .
Boyd RS, Balkwill FR ( 1999 ) . MMP-2 release and activation in ovarian carcinoma: The role of fibroblasts . British Journal of Cancer vol. 80 , ( 3-4 ) 315 - 321 .
Moore RJ, Owens DM, Stamp G, Arnott C, Burke F, East N, Holdsworth H, Turner L et al. ( 1999 ) . Erratum: Mice deficient in tumor necrosis factor-α are resistant to skin carcinogenesis (Nature Medicine (1999) 5 (828-831)) . Nature Medicine vol. 5 , ( 9 )
Balkwill F ( 1999 ) . TNF biosynthesis in gut associated immunopathologies . Gut vol. 45 , ( 4 )
Dias S, Boyd R, Balkwill F ( 1998 ) . IL-12 regulates VEGF and MMPs in a murine breast cancer model . International Journal of Cancer vol. 78 , ( 3 ) 361 - 365 .
Dias S, Boyd R, Balkwill F ( 1998 ) . IL-12 regulates VEGF and MMPs in a murine breast cancer model . Int J Cancer vol. 78 , ( 3 ) 361 - 365 .
Dias S, Thomas H, Balkwill F ( 1998 ) . Multiple molecular and cellular changes associated with tumour stasis and regression during IL-12 therapy of a murine breast cancer model . International Journal of Cancer vol. 75 , ( 1 ) 151 - 157 .
Dias S, Thomas H, Balkwill F ( 1998 ) . Multiple molecular and cellular changes associated with tumour stasis and regression during IL-12 therapy of a murine breast cancer model . Int J Cancer vol. 75 , ( 1 ) 151 - 157 .
Negus RPM, Turner L, Burke F, Balkwill FR ( 1998 ) . Hypoxia down-regulates MCP-1 expression: Implications for macrophage distribution in tumors . Journal of Leukocyte Biology vol. 63 , ( 6 ) 758 - 765 .
Leber TM, Balkwill FR ( 1998 ) . Regulation of monocyte MMP-9 production by TNF-α and a tumour-derived soluble factor (MMPSF) . British Journal of Cancer vol. 78 , ( 6 ) 724 - 732 .
Balkwill F ( 1998 ) . The molecular and cellular biology of the chemokines . Journal of Viral Hepatitis vol. 5 , ( 1 ) 1 - 14 .
Workman P, Twentyman P, Balkwill F, Balmain A, Chaplin D, Double J, Embleton J, Newell D et al. ( 1998 ) . United Kingdom Co-ordinating Committee on Cancer Research (UKCCCR) Guidelines for the Welfare of Animals in Experimental Neoplasia (Second Edition) . British Journal of Cancer vol. 77 , ( 1 ) 1 - 10 .
Leber TM, Balkwill FR ( 1997 ) . Zymography: A single-step staining method for quantitation of proteolytic activity on substrate gels . Analytical Biochemistry vol. 249 , ( 1 ) 24 - 28 .
Balkwill F ( 1997 ) . Cytokine amplification and inhibition of immune and inflammatory responses . Journal of viral hepatitis vol. 4 Suppl 2 , 6 - 15 .
Burke F, East N, Upton C, Patel K, Balkwill FR ( 1997 ) . Interferon gamma induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in a model of ovarian cancer: Enhancement of effect by batimastat . European Journal of Cancer Part A vol. 33 , ( 7 ) 1114 - 1121 .
Balkwill F, Pitha PM ( 1997 ) . Interferons and cytokines on a grand scale . Cytokine and Growth Factor Reviews . vol. 8 , 91 - 95 .
Negus RPM, Stamp GWH, Hadley J, Balkwill FR ( 1997 ) . Quantitative assessment of the leukocyte infiltrate in ovarian cancer and its relationship to the expression of C-C chemokines . American Journal of Pathology vol. 150 , ( 5 ) 1723 - 1734 .
Zucker S, Balkwill FR ( 1996 ) . Correspondence re: N-B. Liabakk et al., Matrix metalloprotease 2 (MMP- 2) and matrix metalloprotease 9 (MMP-9) type IV collagenases in colorectal cancer. Cancer Res., 56: 190-196, 1996 . Cancer Research vol. 56 , ( 15 )
Burke F, Balkwill FR ( 1996 ) . Cytokines in animal models of cancer . Biotherapy vol. 8 , ( 3-4 ) 229 - 241 .
Balkwill FR ( 1996 ) . Cytokines in Hemopoiesis, Oncology, and Immunology III . British journal of cancer vol. 73 , ( 5 ) 711 - 711 .
Burke F, Relf M, Negus R, Balkwill F ( 1996 ) . A cytokine profile of normal and malignant ovary . Cytokine vol. 8 , ( 7 ) 578 - 585 .
Thomas H, Hanby AM, Smith RA, Hagger P, Patel K, Raikundalia B, Camplejohn RS, Balkwill FR ( 1996 ) . An inbred colony of oncogene transgenic mice: Diversity of tumours and potential as a therapeutic model . British Journal of Cancer vol. 73 , ( 1 ) 65 - 72 .
Negus RPM, Balkwill FR ( 1996 ) . Cytokines in tumour growth, migration and metastasis . World Journal of Urology vol. 14 , ( 3 ) 157 - 165 .
Liabakk NB, Talbot I, Smith RA, Wilkinson K, Balkwill F ( 1996 ) . Matrix metalloprotease 2 (MMP-2) and matrix metalloprotease 9 (MMP-9) type IV collagenases in colorectal cancer . Cancer Research vol. 56 , ( 1 ) 190 - 196 .
Balkwill F ( 1995 ) . Making sense . Nature vol. 378 , ( 6554 )
Thomas H, Balkwill F ( 1995 ) . Assessing new anti-tumour agents and strategies in oncogene transgenic mice . Cancer and Metastasis Reviews vol. 14 , ( 2 ) 91 - 95 .
de Kossodo S, Moore R, Gschmeissner S, East N, Balkwill FR ( 1995 ) . Changes in endogenous cytokines, adhesion molecules and platelets during cytokine-induced tumour necrosis . British Journal of Cancer vol. 72 , ( 5 ) 1165 - 1172 .
Burger D, Dayer JM, Opdenakker G, Van Damme J, Mauviel A, Proost P, Van Damme J, Gijbels K et al. ( 1995 ) . Inhibitory cytokines and cytokine inhibitors . Neurology vol. 45 , ( 6 ) S39 - S43 .
Thavasu PW, Ganjoo RK, Maidment SA, Love SB, Williams AH, Malplas JS, Balkwill FR ( 1995 ) . Multiple myeloma: An immunoclinical study of disease and response to treatment . Hematological Oncology vol. 13 , ( 2 ) 69 - 82 .
Burke F, Knowles RG, East N, Balkwill FR ( 1995 ) . THE role of indoleamine 2,3‐dioxygenase in the anti‐tumour activity of human interferon‐γ in vivo . International Journal of Cancer vol. 60 , ( 1 ) 115 - 122 .
Negus RPM, Stamp GWH, Relf MG, Burke F, Malik STA, Bernasconi S, Allavena P, Sozzani S et al. ( 1995 ) . The detection and localization of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) in human ovarian cancer . Journal of Clinical Investigation vol. 95 , ( 5 ) 2391 - 2396 .
Balkwill F ( 1995 ) . Tumour necrosis factor in ovarian cancer . Interferons and Cytokines ( 26 ) 6 - 8 .
Miles DW, Happerfield LC, Naylor MS, Bobrow LG, Rubens RD, Balkwill FR ( 1994 ) . Expression of tumour necrosis factor (TNF alpha) and its receptors in benign and malignant breast tissue . Int J Cancer vol. 56 , ( 6 ) 777 - 782 .
MILES D, THOMSEN L, BALKWILL F, THAVASU P, MONCADA S ( 1994 ) . Association between biosynthesis of nitric oxide and changes in immunological and vascular parameters in patients treated with interleukin‐2 . European Journal of Clinical Investigation vol. 24 , ( 4 ) 287 - 290 .
Balkwill FR ( 1994 ) . Cytokine therapy of cancer. The importance of knowing the context . European Cytokine Network vol. 5 , ( 4 ) 379 - 385 .
Naylor MS, Stamp GW, Davies BD, Balkwill FR ( 1994 ) . Expression and activity of MMPS and their regulators in ovarian cancer . International Journal of Cancer vol. 58 , ( 1 ) 50 - 56 .
Thomas H, Balkwill FR ( 1994 ) . Oncogene transgenic mice as therapeutic models in cancer research . European Journal of Cancer vol. 30 , ( 4 ) 533 - 537 .
Philip PA, Rea D, Thavasu P, Carmichael J, Stuart NSA, Rockett H, Talbot DC, Ganesan T et al. ( 1993 ) . Phase I study of bryostatin 1: Assessment of interleukin 6 and tumor necrosis factor α induction in vivo . Journal of the National Cancer Institute vol. 85 , ( 22 ) 1812 - 1818 .
Davies B, Waxman J, Wasan H, Abel P, Williams G, Krausz T, Neal D, Thomas D et al. ( 1993 ) . Levels of Matrix Metalloproteases in Bladder Cancer Correlate with Tumor Grade and Invasion . Cancer Research vol. 53 , ( 22 ) 5365 - 5369 .
Burke F, Stuart Naylor M, Davies B, Balkwill F ( 1993 ) . The cytokine wall chart . Trends in Immunology vol. 14 , ( 4 )
Balkwill F ( 1993 ) . Tumour necrosis factor. Improving on the formula . Nature vol. 361 , ( 6409 ) 206 - 207 .
Davies B, Brown PD, East N, Crimmin MJ, Balkwill FR ( 1993 ) . A Synthetic Matrix Metalloproteinase Inhibitor Decreases Tumor Burden and Prolongs Survival of Mice Bearing Human Ovarian Carcinoma Xenograft . Cancer Research vol. 53 , ( 9 ) 2087 - 2091 .
Davies B, Miles DW, Happerfield LC, Naylor MS, Bobrow LG, Rubens RD, Balkwill FR ( 1993 ) . Activity of type IV collagenases in benign and malignant breast disease . British Journal of Cancer vol. 67 , ( 5 ) 1126 - 1131 .
Balkwill F ( 1993 ) . Cytokines in health and disease . Immunology Today . vol. 14 , 149 - 150 .
Taylor-Papadimitriou J, Balkwill F ( 1993 ) . Fusion potential for vaccines . Nature vol. 362 , ( 6422 )
Balkwill F ( 1993 ) . Improving on the formula . Nature vol. 361 , ( 6409 ) 206 - 207 .
Saraya KA, Balkwill FR ( 1993 ) . Temporal sequence and cellular origin of interleukin-2 stimulated cytokine gene expression . British Journal of Cancer vol. 67 , ( 3 ) 514 - 521 .
Burke F, Stuart Naylor M, Davies B, Balkwill F ( 1993 ) . The cytokine wall chart . Immunology Today vol. 14 , ( 4 )
Burke F, Griffin D, Elwood N, Davis C, Stamp G, Rohatiner A, Lister TA, Balkwill F ( 1993 ) . The effect of cytokines on cultured mononuclear cells from patients with B cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia . Hematological Oncology vol. 11 , ( 1 ) 23 - 33 .
Naylor MS, Stamp GWH, Foulkes WD, Eccles D, Balkwill FR ( 1993 ) . Tumor necrosis factor and its receptors in human ovarian cancer: Potential role in disease progression . Journal of Clinical Investigation vol. 91 , ( 5 ) 2194 - 2206 .
Thavasu PW, Longhurst S, Joel SP, Slevin ML, Balkwill FR ( 1992 ) . Measuring cytokine levels in blood. Importance of anticoagulants, processing, and storage conditions . Journal of Immunological Methods vol. 153 , ( 1-2 ) 115 - 124 .
Malik ST, Balkwill FR ( 1992 ) . Antiproliferative and antitumor activity of TNF in vitro and in vivo . Immunology series vol. 56 , 239 - 268 .
Naylor MS, Stamp GW, Balkwill FR ( 1992 ) . Beta actin expression and organization of actin filaments in colorectal neoplasia . Epithelial cell biology vol. 1 , ( 3 ) 99 - 104 .
Malik TAS, East N, Boraschi D, Balkwill FR ( 1992 ) . Effects of intraperitoneal recombinant interleukin-1β in intraperitoneal human ovarian cancer xenograft models: Comparison with the effects of tumour necrosis factor . British Journal of Cancer vol. 65 , ( 5 ) 661 - 666 .
Miles DW, Aderka D, Engelmann H, Wallach D, Balkwill FR ( 1992 ) . Induction of soluble tumour necrosis factor receptors during treatment with interleukin-2 . British Journal of Cancer vol. 66 , ( 6 ) 1195 - 1199 .
Balkwill FR ( 1992 ) . Tumour necrosis factor and cancer . Progress in Growth Factor Research vol. 4 , ( 2 ) 121 - 137 .
Miles DW, Longhurst SJ, Harper PG, Balkwill FR ( 1991 ) . Toxicity and reconstitution of recombinant interleukin-2 with albumin . The Lancet vol. 338 , ( 8780 )
Kelly SA, Gschmeissner S, East N, Balkwill FR ( 1991 ) . Enhancement of Metastatic Potential by γ-Interferon . Cancer Research vol. 51 , ( 15 ) 4020 - 4027 .
Stanley LA, Adams DJ, Balkwill FR, Griffin D, Roland Wolf C ( 1991 ) . Differential effects of recombinant interferon α on constitutive and inducible cytochrome P450 isozymes in mouse liver . Biochemical Pharmacology vol. 42 , ( 2 ) 311 - 320 .
Malik STA, Knowles RG, East N, Lando D, Stamp G, Balkwill FR ( 1991 ) . Antitumor Activity of -y-Interferon in Ascitic and Solid Tumor Models of Human Ovarian Cancer . Cancer Research vol. 51 , ( 24 ) 6643 - 6649 .
Thomas H, Balkwill FR ( 1991 ) . Effects of interferons and other cytokines on tumors in animals: A review . Pharmacology and Therapeutics vol. 52 , ( 3 ) 307 - 330 .
Malik S, Balkwill F ( 1991 ) . Epithelial ovarian cancer: A cytokine propelled disease? . British Journal of Cancer vol. 64 , ( 4 ) 617 - 620 .
Lagadec PF, Saraya KA, Balkwill FR ( 1991 ) . Human small‐cell lung‐cancer cells are cytokine‐resistant but NK/LAK‐sensitive . International Journal of Cancer vol. 48 , ( 2 ) 311 - 317 .
Malik STA, Martin D, Hart I, Balkwill F ( 1991 ) . Therapy of human ovarian cancer xenografts with intraperitoneal liposome encapsulated muramyl-tripeptide phosphoethanolamine (MTP-PE) and recombinant GM-CSF . British Journal of Cancer vol. 63 , ( 3 ) 399 - 403 .
Naylor MS, Stamp GWH, Balkwill FR ( 1990 ) . Investigation of Cytokine Gene Expression in Human Colorectal Cancer . Cancer Research vol. 50 , ( 14 ) 4436 - 4440 .
Miles DW, Bird CR, Wadhwa M, Summerhayes M, Balkwill FR, Thorpe R, Rubens RD ( 1990 ) . Reconstitution of interleukin 2 with albumin for infusion . The Lancet vol. 335 , ( 8705 ) 1602 - 1603 .
Malik STA, Stuart Naylor M, East N, Oliff A, Balkwill FR ( 1990 ) . Cells secreting tumour necrosis factor show enhanced metastasis in nude mice . European Journal of Cancer and Clinical Oncology vol. 26 , ( 10 ) 1031 - 1034 .
Stuart Naylor M, Malik STA, Stamp GWH, Jobling T, Balkwill FR ( 1990 ) . In situ detection of tumour necrosis factor in human ovarian cancer specimens . European Journal of Cancer and Clinical Oncology vol. 26 , ( 10 ) 1027 - 1030 .
Malik ST, Griffin DB, Naylor MS, Fiers W, Oliff A, Balkwill FR ( 1990 ) . The complex effects of recombinant tumour necrosis factor-alpha (rhTNF-alpha) in human ovarian cancer xenograft models . Progress in clinical and biological research vol. 349 , 393 - 403 .
Balkwill FR, Stuart Naylor M, Malik S ( 1990 ) . Tumour necrosis factor as an anticancer agent . European Journal of Cancer and Clinical Oncology vol. 26 , ( 5 ) 641 - 644 .
Fiers W, Balkwill FR ( 1989 ) . Future prospects and problems . Cancer Surveys vol. 8 , ( 4 ) 921 - 927 .
Kelly SA, Malik STA, Balkwill FR ( 1989 ) . The relevance of animal tumour models to the preclinical screening of cytokines . Cancer Surveys vol. 8 , ( 4 ) 741 - 754 .
Stebbings WSL, Vinson GP, Farthing MJG, Balkwill F, Wood RFM ( 1989 ) . Effect of steroid hormones on human colorectal adenocarcinoma xenografts, of known steroid-receptor status, in nude mice . Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology vol. 115 , ( 5 ) 439 - 444 .
Balkwill FR ( 1989 ) . INTERFERONS . The Lancet vol. 333 , ( 8646 ) 1060 - 1063 .
Ramani P, Balkwill FR ( 1989 ) . Action of recombinant alpha interferon against experimental and spontaneous metastases in a murine model . International Journal of Cancer vol. 43 , ( 1 ) 140 - 146 .
Balkwill FR, Griffin DB, Lee AE ( 1989 ) . Interferons alpha and gamma differ in their ability to cause tumour stasis and regression in vivo . European Journal of Cancer and Clinical Oncology vol. 25 , ( 10 ) 1481 - 1486 .
Malik STA, Griffin DB, Fiers W, Balkwill FR ( 1989 ) . Paradoxical effects of tumour necrosis factor in experimental ovarian cancer . International Journal of Cancer vol. 44 , ( 5 ) 918 - 925 .
Balkwill FR, Burke F ( 1989 ) . The cytokine network . Immunology Today vol. 10 , ( 9 ) 299 - 304 .
Balkwill FR ( 1989 ) . Tumour necrosis factor . British Medical Bulletin vol. 45 , ( 2 ) 389 - 400 .
Fentiman IS, Balkwill FR, Thomas BS, Russell MJ, Todd I, Bottazzo GF ( 1988 ) . An autoimmune aetiology for hypothyroidism following interferon therapy for breast cancer . European Journal of Cancer and Clinical Oncology vol. 24 , ( 8 ) 1299 - 1303 .
Balkwill F ( 1988 ) . Cytokines - soluble factors in immune responses . Current Opinion in Immunology vol. 1 , ( 2 ) 241 - 249 .
Ramani P, Balkwill FR ( 1988 ) . Human interferons inhibit experimental metastases of a human melanoma cell line in nude mice . British Journal of Cancer vol. 58 , ( 3 ) 350 - 354 .
Malik S, Balkwill F ( 1988 ) . The anti-cancer activity of tumour necrosis factor . Annales de l'Institut Pasteur. Immunology vol. 139 , ( 3 ) 285 - 288 .
Malik S, Balkwill FR ( 1988 ) . Tumour necrosis factor . British Medical Journal (Clinical research ed.) vol. 296 , ( 6631 )
Fentiman IS, Balkwill FR, Cuzick J, Hayward JL, Rubens RD ( 1987 ) . A trial of human alpha interferon as an adjuvant agent in breast cancer after loco-regional recurrence . European Journal of Surgical Oncology vol. 13 , ( 5 ) 425 - 428 .
Balkwill F, Burke F, Talbot D, Tavernier J, Osborne R, Naylor S, Durbin H, Fiers W ( 1987 ) . EVIDENCE FOR TUMOUR NECROSIS FACTOR/CACHECTIN PRODUCTION IN CANCER . The Lancet vol. 330 , ( 8570 ) 1229 - 1232 .
Adams DJ, Balkwill FR, Griffin DB, Hayes JD, Lewis AD, Wolf CR ( 1987 ) . Induction and suppression of glutathione transferases by interferon in the mouse . Journal of Biological Chemistry vol. 262 , ( 10 ) 4888 - 4892 .
Balkwill FR, Smyth JF ( 1987 ) . INTERFERONS IN CANCER THERAPY: A REAPPRAISAL . The Lancet vol. 330 , ( 8554 ) 317 - 319 .
Ward BG, Balkwill FR ( 1987 ) . Intraperitoneal Xenografts of Human Epithelial Ovarian Cancer in Nude Mice . Cancer Research vol. 47 , ( 10 ) 2662 - 2667 .
Tilles JG, Balkwill F, Davilla J ( 1987 ) . 2′,5′-Oligoadenylate Synthetase and Interferon in Peripheral Blood after Rubella, Measles, or Mumps Live Virus Vaccine . Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine vol. 186 , ( 1 ) 70 - 74 .
Dealtry GB, Naylor MS, Fiers W, Balkwill FR ( 1987 ) . DNA fragmentation and cytotoxicity caused by tumor necrosis factor is enhanced by interferon‐γ . European Journal of Immunology vol. 17 , ( 5 ) 689 - 693 .
Balkwill FR, Ward BG, Fiers W ( 1987 ) . Effects of tumour necrosis factor on human tumour xenografts in nude mice . Ciba Foundation symposium vol. 131 , 154 - 169 .
Ramani P, Balkwill FR ( 1987 ) . Enhanced metastases of a mouse carcinoma after in vitro treatment with murine interferon gamma . International Journal of Cancer vol. 40 , ( 6 ) 830 - 834 .
Balkwill FR, Stevens MH, Griffin DB, Thomas JA, Bodmer JG ( 1987 ) . Interferon gamma regulates HLA-D expression on solid tumors in vivo . European Journal of Cancer and Clinical Oncology vol. 23 , ( 1 )
Smyth JF, Balkwill FR, Cavalli F, Kimchi A, Mattson K, Niederle NE, Spiegel RJ ( 1987 ) . Interferons in oncology: Current status and future directions . European Journal of Cancer and Clinical Oncology vol. 23 , ( 6 ) 887 - 889 .
Dealtry GB, Naylor MS, Fiers W, Balkwill FR ( 1987 ) . The effect of recombinant human tumour necrosis factor on growth and macromolecular synthesis of human epithelial cells . Experimental Cell Research vol. 170 , ( 2 ) 428 - 438 .
Balkwill FR, Ward IBG, Moodie E, Fiers W ( 1987 ) . Therapeutic Potential of Tumor Necrosis Factor-α and γ-Interferon in Experimental Human Ovarian Cancer . Cancer Research vol. 47 , ( 18 ) 4755 - 4758 .
Rowlinson G, Balkwill F, Snook D, Hooker G, Epenetos AA ( 1986 ) . Enhancement by gamma-interferon of in vivo tumor radiolocalization by a monoclonal antibody against HLA-DR antigen . Cancer Res vol. 46 , ( 12 Pt 1 ) 6413 - 6417 .
Balkwill FR ( 1986 ) . Interferons: From molecular biology to man. Part 1. Genetics and molecular biology of the interferon system . Microbiological Sciences vol. 3 , ( 7 ) 212 - 215 .
Balkwill FR ( 1986 ) . Interferons: From molecular biology to man. Part 2. Interferons and cell function . Microbiological Sciences vol. 3 , ( 8 ) 229 - 233 .
Balkwill FR ( 1986 ) . Interferons: From molecular biology to man. Part 3. Interferons and disease . Microbiological Sciences vol. 3 , ( 9 ) 281 - 284 .
Carmichael J, Fergusson RJ, Wolf CR, Balkwill FR, Smyth JF ( 1986 ) . Augmentation of cytotoxicity of Chemotherapy by Human ɑ-Interferons in Human Non–Small Cell Lung Cancer Xenografts . Cancer Research vol. 46 , ( 10 ) 4916 - 4920 .
Balkwill FR ( 1986 ) . Animal Models for Investigating Antitumor Effects of Interferon . Methods in Enzymology vol. 119 , ( C ) 649 - 657 .
Balkwill FR, Proietti E ( 1986 ) . Effects of mouse interferon on human tumour xenografts in the nude mouse host . International Journal of Cancer vol. 38 , ( 3 ) 375 - 380 .
Balkwill FR, Lee A, Aldam G, Moodie E, Thomas JA, Tavernier J, Fiers W ( 1986 ) . Human tumor xenografts treated with recombinant human tumor necrosis factor alone or in combination with interferons . Cancer Research vol. 46 , ( 8 ) 3990 - 3993 .
Ramani P, Hart IR, Balkwill FR ( 1986 ) . The effect of interferon on experimental metastases in immunocompetent and immunodeficient mice . International Journal of Cancer vol. 37 , ( 4 ) 563 - 568 .
Rohatiner AZ, Prior P, Burton A, Balkwill F, Lister TA ( 1985 ) . Central nervous system toxicity of interferon . Progress in experimental tumor research. Fortschritte der experimentellen Tumorforschung. Progres de la recherche experimentale des tumeurs vol. 29 , 197 - 202 .
Fentiman IS, Thomas BS, Balkwill FR, Rubens RD, Hayward JL ( 1985 ) . PRIMARY HYPOTHYROIDISM ASSOCIATED WITH INTERFERON THERAPY OF BREAST CANCER . The Lancet vol. 325 , ( 8438 )
Taylor-Papadimitriou J, Balkwill F, Ebsworth N, Rozengurt E ( 1985 ) . Antiviral and antiproliferative effects of interferons in quiescent fibroblasts are dissociable . Virology vol. 147 , ( 2 ) 405 - 412 .
Balkwill FR, Goldstein L, Stebbing N ( 1985 ) . Differential action of six human interferons against two human carcinomas growing in nude mice . International Journal of Cancer vol. 35 , ( 5 ) 613 - 617 .
Padmanabhan N, Balkwill FR, Bodmer JG, Rubens RD ( 1985 ) . Recombinant DNA human interferon alpha 2 in advanced breast cancer: A phase 2 trial . British Journal of Cancer vol. 51 , ( 1 ) 55 - 60 .
Bye A, Balkwill F, Brigden D, Wilson J ( 1985 ) . USE OF INTERFERON IN THE MANAGEMENT OF PATIENTS WITH SUBACUTE SCLEROSING PANENCEPHALITIS . Developmental Medicine &amp; Child Neurology vol. 27 , ( 2 ) 170 - 175 .
Shearer M, Taylor-Papadimitriou J, Griffin D, Balkwill F ( 1984 ) . Monoclonal antibodies that distinguish between subspecies of human interferon-α and that detect interferon oligomers . Journal of Immunology vol. 133 , ( 6 ) 3096 - 3101 .
Balkwill FR, Moodie EM, Griffin DB, Seilman SS, Wolf CR, Mowshowitz S, Fantes KH ( 1984 ) . Positive interactions between interferon and chemotherapy due to direct tumor action rather than effects on host drug-metabolizing enzymes . Cancer Research vol. 44 , ( 11 ) 5249 - 5255 .
Balkwill FR, Moodie EM ( 1984 ) . Positive interactions between human interferon and cyclophosphamide or adriamycin in a human tumor model system . Cancer Research vol. 44 , ( 3 ) 904 - 908 .
Borden EC, Balkwill FR ( 1984 ) . Preclinical and clinical studies of interferons and interferon inducers in breast cancer . Cancer vol. 53 , ( 3 Suppl ) 783 - 789 .
Balkwill FR, Bokhon'ko AI ( 1984 ) . Differential effects of pure human alpha and gamma interferons on fibroblast cell growth and the cell cycle . Experimental Cell Research vol. 155 , ( 1 ) 190 - 197 .
Borden EC, Balkwill FR ( 1984 ) . Preclinical and clinical studies of interferons and interferon inducers in breast cancer . Cancer vol. 53 , ( 3 S ) 783 - 789 .
Balkwill FR, Griffin DB, Band HA, Beverley PCL ( 1983 ) . Immune human lymphocytes produce an acid-labile α-interferon . Journal of Experimental Medicine vol. 157 , ( 3 ) 1059 - 1063 .
McCance DJ, Sebesteny A, Griffin BE, Balkwill F, Tilly R, Gregson NA ( 1983 ) . A paralytic disease in nude mice associated with polyoma virus infection . Journal of General Virology vol. 64 , ( 1 ) 57 - 67 .
Balkwill FR, Moodie EM, Freedman V, Lane EB, Fantes KH ( 1983 ) . An Animal Model System for Investigating the AntiTumor Effects of Human Interferon . Journal of Interferon Research vol. 3 , ( 3 ) 319 - 326 .
Rohatiner AZS, Prior PF, Burton AC, Smith AT, Balkwill FR, Lister TA ( 1983 ) . Central nervous system toxicity of interferon . British Journal of Cancer vol. 47 , ( 3 ) 419 - 422 .
Rohatiner AZS, Balkwill FR, Malpas JS, Lister TA ( 1983 ) . Experience with human lymphoblastoid interferon in acute myelogenous leukaemia (AML) . Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology vol. 11 , ( 1 ) 56 - 58 .
Rohatiner AZ, Balkwill F, Lister TA ( 1983 ) . Interferon in acute myelogenous leukaemia: a preliminary report . Haematology and blood transfusion vol. 28 , 56 - 58 .
Taylor-Papadimitriou J, Balkwill FR ( 1982 ) . Implications for clinical application of new developments in interferon research . BBA - Reviews on Cancer vol. 695 , ( 1 ) 49 - 67 .
Rohatiner AZS, Balkwill FR, Griffin DB, Malpas JS, Lister TA ( 1982 ) . A phase I study of human lymphoblastoid interferon administered by continuous intravenous infusion . Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology vol. 9 , ( 2 ) 97 - 102 .
Taylor-Papadimitriou J, Shearer M, Balkwill FR, Fantes KH ( 1982 ) . Effects of HuIFN-α2 and HuIFN-α (Namalwa) on Breast Cancer Cells Grown in Culture and as Xenografts in the Nude Mouse . Journal of Interferon Research vol. 2 , ( 4 ) 479 - 491 .
Balkwill FR, Moodie EM, Freedman V, Fantes KH ( 1982 ) . Human interferon inhibits the growth of established human breast tumours in the nude mouse . International Journal of Cancer vol. 30 , ( 2 ) 231 - 235 .
SILVERMAN RH, WATLING D, BALKWILL FR, TROWSDALE J, KERR IM ( 1982 ) . The ppp(A2′p)<inf>n</inf>A and Protein Kinase Systems in Wild‐Type and Interferon‐Resistant Daudi Cells . European Journal of Biochemistry vol. 126 , ( 2 ) 333 - 341 .
Balkwill FH ( 1981 ) . Extracts from the last century. Mechanical dentistry--on regulation cases by F.H. Balkwill . British dental journal vol. 151 , ( 1 )
Rohatiner A, Balkwill F, Malpas JS, Lister TA ( 1981 ) . A phase I study of human lymphoblastoid interferon in patients with hematological malignancies . Haematology and blood transfusion vol. 26 , 63 - 67 .
Rohatiner AZS, Balkwill F, Malpas JS, Lister TA ( 1981 ) . A phase I study of intravenous human lymphoblastoid interferon (HLBI) . Proceedings of the American Association for Cancer Research vol. Vol. 22 ,
Hogg N, Balkwill FR ( 1981 ) . Species restriction in cytostatic activity of human and murine monocytes and macrophages . Immunology vol. 43 , ( 1 ) 197 - 204 .
Sebesteny A, Tilly R, Balkwill F, Trevan D ( 1980 ) . Demyelination and wasting associated with polyomavirus infection in nude (nu/nu) mice . Laboratory Animals vol. 14 , ( 4 ) 337 - 345 .
Balkwill F, Taylor¿Papadimitriou J, Fantes KH, Sebesteny A ( 1980 ) . HUMAN LYMPHOBLASTOID INTERFERON CAN INHIBIT THE GROWTH OF HUMAN BREAST CANCER XENOGRAFTS IN ATHYMIC [NUDE] MICE . Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences vol. 350 , ( 1 ) 591 - 592 .
Balkwill F, Taylor-Papadimitriou J, Fantes KH, Sebesteny A ( 1980 ) . Human lymphoblastoid interferon can inhibit the growth of human breast cancer xenografts in athymic (nude) mice . European Journal of Cancer (1965) vol. 16 , ( 4 ) 569 - 573 .
Balkwill FR, Hogg N ( 1979 ) . Characterization of human breast milk macrophages cytostatic for human cell lines . Journal of Immunology vol. 123 , ( 4 ) 1451 - 1456 .
Balkwill FR, Oliver RTD ( 1979 ) . REMISSION IN ACUTE MYELOBLASTIC LEUKÆMIA . The Lancet vol. 314 , ( 8149 ) 961 - 962 .
Balkwill FR ( 1979 ) . Interferons as cell-regulatory molecules . Cancer Immunology Immunotherapy vol. 7 , ( 1 ) 7 - 14 .
Balkwill F, Taylor-Papadimitriou J ( 1978 ) . Interferon affects both G<inf>1</inf> and S+G<inf>2</inf> in cells stimulated from quiescence to growth . Nature vol. 274 , ( 5673 ) 798 - 800 .
Balkwill F, Watling D, Taylor¿Papadimitriou J ( 1978 ) . Inhibition by lymphoblastoid interferon of growth of cells derived from the human breast . International Journal of Cancer vol. 22 , ( 3 ) 258 - 265 .
Balkwill FR, Oliver RTD ( 1977 ) . Growth inhibitory effects of interferon on normal and malignant human haemopoietic cells . International Journal of Cancer vol. 20 , ( 4 ) 500 - 505 .
Franks CR, Bishop D, Balkwill FR, Oliver RTD, Spector WG ( 1977 ) . Growth of acute myeloid leukaemia as discrete subcutaneous tumours in immune-deprived mice . British Journal of Cancer vol. 35 , ( 5 ) 697 - 700 .
Balkwill FR, Franks CR, Oliver RTD, Spector WG ( 1977 ) . Neoplastic macrophages grown from human leukaemic monocytes . The Journal of Pathology vol. 122 , ( 1 ) 13 - 26 .
Balkwill FR, Oliver RT ( 1976 ) . Diagnostic and prognostic significance of peripheral blood cultural characteristics in adult acute leukaemia . British Journal of Cancer vol. 33 , ( 4 ) 400 - 410 .
Balkwill FR, Oliver RTD ( 1976 ) . Morphological characterisation of adult acute leukaemia in short term liquid culture . Recent Results in Cancer Research vol. No.56 , 87 - 90 .
Balkwill F, Pindar A, Crowther D ( 1974 ) . Factors influencing microculture of leukaemia cells . Nature vol. 251 , ( 5477 ) 741 - 742 .